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the unwholesome and wholesome roots are destroyed, which means there is no more production of kamma. The Arahant’s volition is purely functional.345 At her or his Parinibbana (final cessation), there is no further rebirth.346

This explanation of the three unwholesome roots and three wholesome roots has been only brief, but we hope it is sufficient to understand our continued ex­planation of unwholesome and wholesome kamma.

THE COURSES OF KAMMA

Now that we have discussed the unwholesome and wholesome, we can go on to discuss what The Buddha calls courses of kamma(kamma·patha). When He ex­plains why beings have an unhappy or happy rebirth, The Buddha speaks of the unwholesome and wholesome courses of kamma:347

1) Ten unwholesome courses of kamma(dasaakusala·kamma-patha):

i) three courses of unwholesome bodily kamma(akusala kaya’kamma)

ii) four courses of unwholesome verbal kamma(akusala vaci.kamma)

iii) three courses of unwholesome mental kamma(akusala mano’kamma)

2) Ten wholesome courses of kamma(dasa kusala·kamma·patha):

i) three courses of wholesome bodily kamma(kusala kaya’kamma)

ii) four courses of wholesome verbal kamma(kusala vaci.kamma)

iii) three courses of wholesome mental kamma(kusala mano’kamma)

THE TEN UNWHOLESOME COURSES OF KAMMA

THE THREE UNWHOLESOME BoDILY KAMMAS

Let us then take His explanation of the ten courses of unwholesome kamma: what they are, and their roots (greed, hatred, or delusion).348 First, He explains the three types of unwholesome bodily conduct:349

And how, bhikkhus, are there three types of bodily kamma, of fault and failure, of un­wholesome intention, yielding pain, with a painful result?

To BE A KILLER

Here, bhikkhus, someone is a killer of beings:

cruel, bloody-handed, engaged in slaying and attacking, without mercy towards allliv­ing beings.

Why does someone kill another? It is either because of greed(lobha) or because of hatred(dosa). And, as you will remember, whenever there is greed or hatred, there is also always delusion(moha). As we explained earlier, the delusion is to believe that there is in fact another being: a woman, a man, a cow, a fish, etc.

34S For further details regarding the Arahant’s volition, see ‘Unwholesome and Wholesome Volition’, pAO.

346 See further ‘The Unworking of Kamma’, p.334ff. 347 A.X.N.ii.l0 ‘Cunda·Suttam’ (‘The Cunda Sutta’)

348 All details regarding the roots of the ten unwholesome courses of kamma have been taken from DhSA.I.iii.l ‘Akusala·Kamma·Patha·Katha’ (‘Discussion of the Unwholesome Kamma-COurse’) E.126-13S. (See also quotation endnote lS9, p.244.) For details regard­ing the three roots, see quotation pAS, and regarding view-associated/dissociated, see quotation endnote 77, p.232.

349 A.X.V.i.7 ‘Pathama·Sancetanika·Suttam'(‘The First “Intentional” Sutta’)

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The Workings of Kamma

A butcher and fisherman kills beings as a livelihood: it is greed, because she or he wants to enjoy sensual pleasures. A soldier may in the same way kill beings because of greed, but she or he may also kill because of fear or anger. A farmer may also kill to protect his crops: it is greed because she or he also wants to en­joy sensual pleasures, and it is hatred because she or he is angry at the beings who eat his crops. One may also kill beings to make one’s house or garden look beautiful: it is greed because one wants one’s house or garden beautiful, and it is hatred because one is angry at the insects and other vermin who make it unbeau­tiful. In the same way, a doctor may as livelihood kill a patient who is incurably sick. The patient’s family may agree or request to have the patient killed because they hate seeing the patient so sick. It is the same when one has a sick animal killed: one hates the sight of the animal suffering. A doctor may also perform abortions as her or his livelihood: that is greed. And the mother who asks a doctor to perform the abortion does it because she does not want to look after her child: she is greedy for freedom, and hates her child because she or he endangers that freedom. If the child is deformed, she may hate it because it is abnormal, and because it will require much looking after. If the mother has been raped, she may also have an abortion because she hates the man who raped her, or because she hates her child, whom she identifies with that man. In all cases, there is de­lusion(moha).350 And if one thinks there is nothing wrong about killing another, or one thinks it is somehow right to kill another, then the kamma is view-associated (ditfhi·sampayutta): associated with a wrong view about the workings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of killing is view-dissociated(ditfhi·yjppayuttaj.

Although there can be either greed or hatred before the killing, at the time of actually killing the other being, there is only hatred and delusion. It is impossible to kill another being without hatred and delusion(mo’7aj.

After explaining the unwholesome kamma of killing, The Buddha explains the unwholesome kamma of stealing.

To BE A THIEF

One is a stealer of what has not been given:

that which is another’s wealth and possessions, in the village or in the forest, by theft one is a stealer of that which has not been given.

Theft is also because of either greed and delusion, or hatred and delusion. One may steal because of greed for the object, or one may steal because of hatred for the owner. At the time of actually taking the thing, there may be joy (hattha) (greed-rooted), or fear(bhi1:a) (hatred-rooted): one may be afraid that someone discovers what one is doing; one may be afraid because one knows one is doing a bad thing. In either case, there is delusion(moha).

And if one thinks there is nothing wrong about stealing another’s property, or one thinks it is somehow right to steal another’s property, then the kamma is view-associated(d~ttf7i’sampayutta): associated with a wrong view about the workings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of stealing is view-dissociated(ditfhi·vWaYIIlt11).

3S0 Explaining the different types of suffering, VsM.xvi.S40 :JatiWiddeso'(‘Exposition of Birth’) (PP.xvi.39) describes, for example, the pain of abortion: ‘When the mother has an abortion, the pain that arises in him through the cutting and rending in the place where the pain arises, it is not fit to be seen even by friends and intimates and companions: this is the suffering rooted in abortion.’ For the arising of consciousness and feelings at con­ception and during gestation, see explanation, p.96, and ‘Birth’, p.342.

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After explaining the unwholesome kamma of stealing, The Buddha explains the unwholesome kamma of sexual misconduct.

To BE ONE WHO ENGAGES IN SEXUAL MISCONDUCT One is one who engages in sexual misconduct:

[1] with those under their mother’s guardianship, [2] with those under their father’s guardianship,

[3] with those under their mother’s and father’s guardianship, [4] with those under their brother’s guardianship,

[5] with those under their sister’s guardianship,

[6] with those under their relative’s guardianship,

[7] with those under their family’s guardianship,

[8] with those under a religious community’s guardianship, [9] with those having a husband,

[10] with those entailing a penalty,

even with those garlanded with flowers [of betrothal], one is an offender in such conduct. 3S1/157

Sexual misconduct, adultery,3s2 is because of either lust and delusion, or hatred and delusion.

3S1 DhST-ibid. explains: lHOSE UNDER A RELIGIOUS COMMUNI1Y’S GUARDIANSHIP(dhamma’mkkhit3): guardianship by co-religionists(.!ilha-dhammikehi mkkhita) (according to Vin.parT.303, that is, white-clothed wanderers(palJ(far·ariga·palibbajaka), etc., who practise under one teacher(eka .!ilttfla). It is a wide definition that includes religionists of any religion. Within The Buddha’s Dispensation, it would indude a bhikkhuni, a bhikkhuni candidate, and a female novice). THOSE ENTAILING A PENALTY(saparidalJl!a). those upon whom approaching one incurs the king’s penalty(fiJliM ~~)<E.ibid’s ‘a woman undergoing punishment’, is misleading>.

In Vin.par.ILv.303 ‘Saffcatitta·Sikl<ha·Padam'(‘Go-Between Training-Precept’), The Bud­dha gives twenty types of unapproachable ones(agamaniya·vatthu). There, He explains lHOSE HAVING A HUSBAND as one who is under guardianship(.sjmkkh5) <one betrothed already while in the womb, or, as here, ‘garlanded with flowers’>, and then gives a separate ten types of married woman <under a husband’s guardianship: they are listed in subsequent endnote lS7, p.243>: the tenth is a momentary wife(muhuttika/f;Jrikha(lika), which is a prostitute. Thus, DhSA.ibid./E.ibid also gives these ten types of married woman, and explains that sexual misconduct is committed only by the woman under a husband’s guardianship, the woman entailing a penalty, and the ten types of wife (In the case of the eight under guardianship other than a husband’s guardianship, this would correspond to statutory rape, where the man commits the offence and not the woman/girl <the passage is mistranslated in

E.ibid. ». The offence is also greater, the greater the virtue of one’s object. ItiA.iii.S ‘Putta­·SlJttam’ (‘The Son Sutta’), explains further that the offence is greater the greater the pas­sion in the offending party. The offence is less serious (but still a full course of unwhole­some bodily kamma) when both parties consent, but very much more serious when per­suasion/force is used by either party. See also next footnote.

3S2 sexual misconduct/adultery: in English, ‘adultery’ refers properly only to sexual inter­course between a married woman/man and someone other than her/his spouse, be that person married/unmarried. But according to the Pali analysis of unapproachable ones(agam­aniya·vatthu) (see footnote 3S1, p.118), the unwholesome kamma of sexual misconduct inclu­des intercourse with anyone who is not one’s wifejhusband (Biblically referred to as ‘fornic­ation’), that is: also statutory rape (intercourse with one under the age of consent), fornic­ation (the act of the unmarried partner in adulterous intercourse, as well as intercourse between the unmarried), seduction/violation of one chaste, and rape. A professional prosti­tute, however, is one of the ten types of wife: in English a ‘term wife’/’temporary wife’ (EB: mut’ah in Islamic law). If, however, the prostitute is already under contract with a man,

(!lktue ••• (utrtfut< rwd. pwp.)

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One’s object may be either a female or a male. One may do it because of lust for the object, or one may do it because of hatred, wanting to harm the person, or harm the person’s family, etc. But at the time of actually engaging in the mis­conduct, there is only lust and delusion.

And if one thinks there is nothing wrong about sexual misconduct, or one thinks it is somehow right to commit sexual misconduct, then the kamma is view-associ­ated(d~tthj·sampayutta): associated with a wrong view about the workings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of sexual misconduct is view-dissociated(d~tthj·Yippayuttaj.

That is the three unwholesome courses of bodily kamma: to be a killer, to be a thief, and to be an adulterer.

THE FoUR UNWHOLESOME VERBAL KAMMAS

Afterwards, The Buddha explains the four unwholesome courses of verbal kamma.

And how, bhikkhus, are there four types of verbal kamma, of fault and failure, of unwholesome intention, pain-yielding, with a painful result?

To BE A LIAR

Here, bhikkhus, someone is a speaker of untl1lth: at the council, or at a meeting, or

amidst his relatives, or amidst a crowd, or amidst the royal family.

Summoned and asked as a witness: ‘Now good man, tell whatever you know’;

· he not knowing, says ‘I know’, or knowing, says ‘I do not know’; • or not seeing, says ‘I see’, or seeing, says ‘I do not see’.

Thus, for one’s own sake, or another’s sake, or some material trifle’s sake, one is in full awareness a speaker of untl1lth.

Untrue speech, lying, is because of either greed and delusion, or hatred and delusion.

One may lie because of greed for an object. It is also greed if one lies to protect oneself or another from harm. One may also lie because of hatred, wanting to harm someone. In either case, there is delusion(moha). And if one thinks there is nothing wrong about telling a lie, or one thinks it is somehow right to tell a lie, then the kamma is view-associated(dittf7j·sampayutta): associated with a wrong view about the workings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of lying is view-dissociated (dittf7j·vippayuttaj.

After explaining the unwholesome kamma of lying, The Buddha explains the unwholesome kamma of slander.

To BE A SLANDERER

One is a speaker of slander:

· from here having heard, there one tells, these to divide, • or there having heard, to these one tells, those to divide.

Thus of the united one is a divider, one is an originator of divisions, with dissension pleased, dissension enjoying, in dissension delighting, one is a speaker of dissension­making speech.

Slanderous speech is because of either greed and delusion, or hatred and delu­sion.

One may slander someone because of greed for some object, as when people slander each other in court. One may also wish to gain power, to gain someone’s

whoever approaches her and she herself commits sexual misconduct.

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benefits, to get someone’s job, or to make someone’s friends or devotees one’s own. One may also slander someone because of hatred, wanting to harm some­one. In either case, there is delusion(moha). And if one thinks there is nothing wrong about slandering another, or one thinks it is somehow right to slander another, then the kamma is view-associated(d~ttf7i·sampayutt;1): associated with a wrong view about the workings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of slander is view-dissociated (d~ttf7i·vippayutt;1).

After explaining the unwholesome kamma of slander, The Buddha explains the unwholesome kamma of harsh speech.

To BE A SPEAKER OF HARSHNESS One is a speaker of harshness:

· whatever words that are offensive, rough, sharp, CI’OSS, bordering on anger, • that do not lead to concentration, one is a speaker of such speech.

Harsh speech is because of either greed and delusion, or hatred and delusion. Just as in the case of slander, one may use harsh speech against someone be-

cause of greed for some object: for example, when one speaks harshly to a thief, or a government official who does not give one what one wants. Parents very often speak harshly to their children, because their children are not behaving as they want them to, and children speak rudely to their parents because they have been denied something they wanted.353It is also very common for one to speak harshly because one has been spoken to harshly by someone else: one’s pride is hurt, and one attacks. In all cases, at the time of actually uttering the harsh words, one wants the other person to feel pain at one’s words: there is hatred and delu­sion only. And if one thinks there is nothing wrong about speaking harshly to another, or one thinks it is somehow right to speak harshly to another, then the kamma is view-associated(d~ttf7i’sampayutt;1): associated with a wrong view about the workings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of harsh speech is view-dissoci­ated( difthi·vippayutt;1).

After explaining the unwholesome kamma of harsh speech, The Buddha ex­plains the unwholesome kamma of prattle.

To BE A PRATTLER A prattler one is:

· a speaker of the untimely, • a speaker of non-Discipline;

· a speaker of the unfactual, • one is an utterer of forgettable speech,

·a speaker of the useless, untimely, aimless, without end,

• a speaker of non-Dhamma, and connected with no purpose.

Prattle is because of either greed and delusion, or hatred and delusion. Explaining prattle, The Buddha speaks of different types of low talk(ti/OCChana-

·katM). That is:354

353 This may also be because one has a hating temperament(OOsa·QlIita). See ‘The Variety of Temperament’, p.32.

354 Uterally animal talk(PED). The Buddha gives this list in, for example, S. V:XII.i.l0 7ira­cchana·Katha·Suttam’ (‘The Low-Talk Sutta’).

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The Workings of Kamma

to speak to speak talk

·of kings • of jewellery • of the street

·of criminals • of perfumes • of the well

·of ministers • of one’s family • of the dead

·of armies • of villages • of various other aimless

·of catastrophes • of towns things

·of wars • of cities • of the origin of the world:

·of food • of countries who created the world, it was

·of drink • of women (or men> a god, etc.

·of clothes • of heroes • of the origin of the sea, or

• of furniture this or that thing, etc.

This is what we talk about all the time, is it not? We may think it is very impor­tant to talk about politics, and about this and that war. But The Buddha says that if one wants to attain Nibbana, one should not talk about these things: He descri­bes such talk as low, of the village, of ordinary people, ignoble, and unbeneficial. More importantly, He explains prattle as not leading to disenchantment, not lead­ing to dispassion, not leading to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, or to enlightenment: not leading to Nibbana.

When we talk about kings, ministers, catastrophes, food, our family, etc., we nourish greed or hatred, and delusion. For example, we talk a long time about how bad such and such a president is, and how terrible such and such a catas­trophe was: that is because of hatred and delusion. Or we talk about how beauti­ful our house is, about food, and about all the different members of our family: that is because of greed and delusion. To enjoy talking about such things is greed and delusion. It serves no good purpose. And because it serves no good purpose, it is also endless.

If one thinks there is nothing wrong about prattling with another, or one thinks it is somehow right to prattle with another, then the kamma is view-associated (ditfhi·sampayutla): associated with a wrong view about the workings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of prattle is view-dissociated(ditfhi·vWi1yut1a).

We shall explain what The Buddha says one should talk about, when we ex­plain the wholesome courses of kamma.3SS

That then is the four unwholesome courses of verbal kamma: to be a liar, to be a slanderer, to be a speaker of harshness, and to be a prattler.

THE THREE UNWHOLESOME MENTAL KAMMAS

Then The Buddha explains the three unwholesome courses of mental kamma:

And how, bhikkhus, are there three types of mental kamma, of fault and failure, of unwholesome intention, pain-yielding, with a painful result?

To BE COVETOUS One is a coveter:

that which is another’s wealth” possessions, ofthat one is covetous [thinking]: ‘Oh, that what is another’s would be mine!’

Covetousness is again because of either greed and delusion, or hatred and de­lusion.

3SS See ‘The Four Wholesome Verbal Kammas’, p.130.

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One may covet something because of greed for the object, or because of hatred for the owner: one wants to harm him, by taking his property. It may be because of competitiveness: there may be envy involved. But at the time of actually covet­ing the object, wanting someone else’s property in an unlawful way, it is because of greed and delusion only.356 And if one thinks there is nothing wrong about coveting another’s property, or one thinks it is somehow right to covet another’s property, then the kamma is view-associated (ditfhi·sampayutta): associated with a wrong view about the workings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of covetous­ness is view-dissociated(ditfhi·vWi1yutta).

After explaining the unwholesome kamma of covetousness, The Buddha ex­plains the unwholesome kamma of ill-will.

To HARBOUR ILL -WILL

One is one with a mind of ill-will, one of malicious mind and intention [who thinks]: ‘May these beings be slain, or trapped, or annihilated, or [ may they] perish, or not be [anymore]!’

III-will is also because of either greed and delusion, or hatred and delusion.

For example, the butcher and fisherman will always have ill-will towards the be­ings they are about to slaughter. The soldier will have ill-will towards the enemy, and even the civilian who has had her or his home bombed, and friends and fam­ily members killed, will have ill-will. Also, a farmer might be observing the five precepts, meaning that she or he does not kill any beings. But when beings harm her or his crops, ill-will can arise, because of greed and delusion. Even in an ordi­nary situation, one may be keeping the precepts, and then when there are rats, etc. in one’s house or garden, or cockroaches in the kitchen, or mosquitoes in one’s bedroom, ill-will arises: there is greed for a beautiful house, etc., and al­though one does not kill the beings, one may wish that they were dead. The doc­tor who does not kill his patients and the family who do not allow a sick family member to be killed may also have ill-will: wishing that the person were dead. The same with the mother who has an unwanted child: she may have sufficient understanding of the workings of kamma to abstain from having her child killed by abortion, but she may still wish the child was dead.

Although there can be either greed or hatred before the killing, at the time of actually wishing for the other being’s harm or death, it is because of hatred and delusion only. And if one thinks there is nothing wrong about wishing another’s harm, or one thinks it is somehow right to wish another’s harm, then the kamma is view associated(d~tthi’sampayutta): associated with a wrong view about the work­ings of kamma. Otherwise the kamma of ill-will is view-dissociated(d~tthi·vippayutta}.

After explaining the unwholesome kamma of ill-will, The Buddha explains the unwholesome kamma of wrong view.

356 DhSA.I.iii.l J4kusala·Kamma·Patf7a·Katf7a'(‘Discussion of the Unwholesome Kamma­Course’) E.13S explains: ‘Ufe-taking has two roots by virtue of hate and delusion … covet­ousness by virtue of delusion, has a single root; likewise iII-wili. Wrong view has a double root by virtue of greed and delusion.’

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The Workings of Kamma

To HOLD WRONG VIEW

One is one of wrong view, one of pelVelted view [who thinks]:357

[1] ‘There is no offering, [7] there is no mother,

[2] there is no almsgiving, [8] there is no father;3S8

[3] there is no sacrifice; [9] there are no beings spontaneously born;

[4] there is no pleasant or painful [10] there are not in the world any ascetics

fruit ~ result.of kamma; and Brahmins, rightly faring, rightly

[5] there ~ no thiS world, practising, who with direct knowledge

[6] there IS no other world; (having themselves realized this world

and the other world) dedare it.’

This is the standard wrong view described by The Buddha. It is called the ten­based wrong view(dasa·vattflukamiccha·ditf!liJ. It denies the workings of kamma, and rebirth, etc. When He speaks of basic wrong view, this is usually the type of view He is referring to. But one may, for example, hold the view that good actions lead to rebirth in heaven,and bad actions lead to rebirth in hell,and that a god controls it. Because one thinks it is controlled by a god, it is wrong view, but because one holds to the efficac.y of action (a doctrine of action), it is not a wrong view.

Holding wrong view is because of either greed and delusion, or hatred and de­lusion.

One may hold wrong view because of craving: greed for sensual pleasure, greed for existence, or greed for non-existence. Clinging to one’s wrong view (which is views-clinging) is also because of greed. Such clinging to one’s view can be associated with conceit, which is also greed-rooted, and is the cause for much dispute among people. One may also hold a wrong view because of a ma­terial advantage: maybe one has been promised a reward. Many take up a

wrong view because of attachment for their partner: the girl takes up the boy’s wrong view, or the boy takes up the girl’s wrong view, because of attachment, which is greed-rooted. A wrong view may also have become fashionable, and one takes it up in order to gain recognition among the fashionable people, to be ‘modern’ (greed-rooted). One may take up a wrong view because of fear (hatred­rooted): perhaps one is persecuted for holding another view. There are even those who take up a wrong view to take revenge (hatred rooted). We know cases of a man committing adultery, and his wife divorcing him and then, to take revenge, marrying someone with wrong view.

Although there can be either greed or hatred before taking up wrong view, at the time of actually pondering the view, seeing things according to that wrong view, it is because of greed and delusion only.359

A wrong view that denies the workings of kamma is the most serious of all the unwholesome courses of kamma. Why? Because when one holds a wrong view, it is very easy to do the other unwholesome things: indeed, it is inevitable.158

That concludes The Buddha’s explanation of the three unwholesome courses of mental kamma: to be covetous of another’s property, to harbour ill-will, and to hold a wrong view that denies the workings of unwholesome and wholesome kamma.

3S7 For further details, see ‘The Non-Existence View’, p.171.

3S8 For the difference between non-existent and existent parents, see footnotes 11, p.2, 373, p.133, and endnote 203, p.249.

3S9 For further details, see ‘A Course of Unwholesome Kamma’, p.12S.

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In all, there are ten unwholesome courses of kamma: three unwholesome courses of bodily kamma, four unwholesome courses of verbal kamma, and three unwholesome courses of mental kamma. They all arise because of greed, hatred and delusion. 159

THE REsUL 15 OF UNWHOLESOME KAMMA

What is the result of such kamma? The Buddha explained it to the bhikkhus:

THE RESULTS OF UNWHOLESOME BODILY KAMMA

With either the three types of bodily kamma, of fault and failure, with unwholesome intention as root, bhikkhus, beings at the breakup of the body, after death, in perdition, in a bad destination, an infernal place, in hell are reborn.

THE RESULTS OF UNWHOLESOME VERBAL KAMMA

Or with the four types of verbal kamma, of fault and failure, with unwholesome inten­tion as root, bhikkhus, beings at the breakup of the body, after death, in perdition, in a bad destination, in an infernal place, in hell are reborn.

THE RESULTS OF UNWHOLESOME MENTAL KAMMA

Or with the three types of mental kamma, of fault and failure, with unwholesome in­tention as root, bhikkhus, beings at the breakup of the body, after death, in perdition, in a bad destination, in an infernal place, in hell are reborn.

It is because the ten unwholesome courses of kamma can bring such unhappy results that The Buddha condemns them as unwholesome(aAvsala), useless(anattf70), as blameful(savajja), and as things with a painful result(dukkha·vipiika dhamma).360 And because they lead to rebirth in hell, He condemns them as the dark way (kanha.magga). 160

The Buddha explains further that if we make someone else engage in the ten unwholesome courses of kamma, they become twenty things that take us to a bad destination, even hell/61 if we also approve of the ten unwholesome courses of kamma, they become thirty things that take us to a bad destination; 162 and if we also speak in praise of the ten unwholesome courses of kamma, they become forty things that take us to a bad destination. 163

THE TRIVIAL REsUL 15 OF UNWHOLESOME KAMMA

Here, however, The Buddha is referring to unwholesome kamma producing its result after death: producing the rebirth-linking consciousness in the animal world, the ghost world, or in hell. But kamma can also produce its result in the continuanceiPavatti) of a human life. Then, although the results are still disagree­able and unwished for, The Buddha describes them as trivial(sabbalahusa) in com­parison. In that case:361/164

· Killing leads only to shortening of one’s life.

· Stealing leads only to loss of one’s wealth.

· Sexual misconduct leads only to rivalry and hatred. • Telling lies leads only to slander and lies about one.

360 For details on the results of these ten courses of unwholesome kamma, see also end­note 14, p.21.

361 For killing’s leading to a short life, see The Buddha’s explanation from ‘The Small Kamma-Analysis Sutta’, under ‘One Is a Killer’, p.2S6.

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The Workings of Kamma

· Slander leads only to breakup of one’s friendships.

· Harsh speech only gives one a voice that is unpleasant to listen to.

· Prattle leads only to people not believing what one says, even when one speaks the truth.

• Drinking beer&wine liquor leads only to derangement.

Here again, please remember, for an action to become an accomplished course of kamma, it needs to be intentional: there needs to be the desire to do the un­wholesome action. One may, for example, feel an itch on one’s arm, and without looking scratch one’s arm. Then one may discover it was a mosquito, and that one unintentionally killed it. That action is not unwholesome kamma, because one had no intention to harm the mosquito. But one may also feel an itch on one’s arm, look down, see that there is a mosquito, and strike it so it dies. That action is unwholesome kamma, because one had the intention to kill the mosqui­to. It is the same if one sprays insect poison to kill the insects in one’s room, or puts out poison for the rats and mice, etc.

A CouRSE OF UNWHOLESOME KAMMA

Furthermore, we need to understand that when The Buddha explains that un­wholesome kamma produces an unhappy rebirth, He is referring to an unwhole­some course of kamma(kamma·pab’7a}. The course is reached only when a certain number of factors(sambhara) are complete. For example, in the bodily act of killing (pa!J3tipafa), the action becomes a full course of kamma only if five factors are complete:362

1) There needs to be a being(pana): for example, an insect, a fish, or a human being.

2) One needs to have the perception that it is a being(pana·sannita): here, it does not matter whether one perceives the being to be an insect, fish or human being. What matters is that one perceives it to be a thing that is possessed of the life faculty: for example, an embryo in the womb.

3) One needs to have the mind to kill(vadhaka·citt11): one’s intention is to cut off that being’s life faculty.

4) One needs to make an attack(upakkama): one needs to make an effort to kill.

For example, one needs to strike, to spray the poison, to apply the knife, or to release the bomb.

5) The being needs to die because of one’s action(rena marananti): the being’s

life faculty must have been cut off because of one’s attack, not for any other reason.

When these five factors are complete, the kamma has taken its full course, and the volition is called the conclusive volition(sann~tth3na·cetana). The kamma has also taken its full course if one makes another do it. If such a course of kamma matu­res after death, it is certain to produce rebirth in the animal world, the ghost

362 The Buddha gives these analyses also in the Sutta· Vibhariga{Rule Analysis) of the Vi­naya, to determine when a bhikkhu hasjhas not broken the respective precept. The analy­ses are here derived rrom DhSA.I.iii :4kusala’Kamma’Patha’Katha'(‘Discussion of the Un­wholesome Kamma-COurse’) E.126-13S. They may be found also in the commentary to M.I.i.9 ‘Samma·Difthi·Suttam'(‘The Right-View SUtta’).

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world, even in hell. If, however, only some of the factors are complete, the result is not certain.363

Let us then say all the factors for killing the being are there, except that the be­ing does not die. For example, one sees a mosquito on one’s arm, and one strikes, but it escapes. Then, although the action does not become the kamma of killing, it does become an unwholesome mental course of kamma: iII-will(byap3da). For ill-will to be a course of kamma, only two factors need to be complete:

1) Another being(pa/Q’satta)

2) The wish for its destruction(l11SX1 ca vin3sa·dnt:5ti)

When these two factors are complete, the kamma has taken its full course. If it matures after one’s death, it is certain to produce rebirth in the animal world, the ghost world, even in hell.

One may also see a mosquito and get angry: ‘Oh, now that mosquito wants to bite me! Maybe I will get malaria!’ And one may take a fan and chase the mos­quito out of one’s room. So long as one is merely angry, so long as one does not have any wish for the mosquito’s destruction, it becomes neither a kamma of killing nor ill-will. But it is still an unwholesome kamma. If that anger arises at one’s death, it can help another unwholesome kamma to produce rebirth in the animal world, the ghost world, even in hell.

If, in any course of kamma, one factor is missing, and the kamma matures, the result is not certain. If the kamma matures after one’s death, it may produce an unhappy rebirth, it may not. It depends on also other things: for example, was the desire to kill, and the effort to kill, very strong or not so strong? Did one do it of one’s own accord, unprompted,or did one do it upon the prompting of another?364 Was the being small or big?Was it a virtuous person or an evil person?1t depends on many things. We can only explain the workings of kamma in principle. But there is one certain and simple rule: unwholesome kamma such as killing, steal­ing, etc., be it big or small, will never produce a good result, only a bad result.

Another example is the mental kamma of wrong view(miccha·d~tthi). It becomes a full course of unwholesome kamma only when two factors are complete:36s

1) The base(vattf7uno) according to which one takes a thing: it is the disposition, the guiding philosophy or science, that is of a nature(sabhava) not to be ac­cording to the reality(a·yafM·bhiita}. It is a philosophy or science that contra­dicts the truth, but only as one of the three types of wrong view that deny the workings of kamma:366

i) The inefficac.y view(akiriya·d~tthi}: it denies the action of unwholesome and wholesome kammas.

ii) The rootlessness view(ahetuka·ditfhi}: it denies the root of results.

iii) The non-existence view(n·attf7ika·d~tthi}: it denies the result of any cause.

2) Taking the thing in the distorted way(gahit:5·k3/Q·viparitat:5), in accordance with that base: it is the mental kamma of reasoning, judging, and making deci­sions according to the base; according to one of those three types of wrong

363 See explanation from MA, footnote 669, p.2S7

364 See ‘Unprompted and Prompted’, pAS.

36S Some of the details given here are from the subcommentary to M.I.i.9 ‘Samma·Ditfhi­·SlJttam’ (‘The Right-View Sutta’).

366 The Buddha’s descriptions of these three views are given at ‘The Three Views that Deny the Workings of Kamma’, p.169.

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view.367 At the time of reasoning in this distorted way, one thinks: ‘It is so (evam·etam), it cannot be otherwise(na jll:J afiliatna).’

For example, one may hold the materialist view: it denies that there is unwholesome and wholesome kamma as a cause, and it denies that there is a result of unwholesome and wholesome kamma. With such a view, one may then reason that there is nothing wrong about performing the ten un­wholesome courses of kamma. For example, one may reason that there is nothing wrong about going fishing, making war, killing vermin, and killing the child that has been conceived in the womb: one may even think it is right to do such things. One may likewise reason that there is nothing wrong about sexual misconduct, telling lies, and nothing wrong about drinking beer, wine, etc. This is because the base of one’s reasoning (of one’s logic) makes one judge such unwholesome courses of kamma in a distorted way.

When those two factors are complete, the kamma of holding wrong view has taken its full course. If it matures after one’s death, it is certain to produce rebirth in the animal world, the ghost world, even in hell. The kamma is more or less serious according to how strongly one holds the view, and how often one reasons and decides according to that view.

The Buddha explains that with such a wrong view and reasoning based on the wrong view, it is only to be expected that one will abstain from the ten whole­some courses of kamma, and that one will undertake the ten unwholesome courses of kamma. Why so? Because one sees nothing wrong in unwholesome things, nor anything good in wholesome ones.368 Hence, because of such distorted reasoning and deciding, there is much fighting and quarrelling in the world. For the same reason, one may hold that to restrain one’s conduct by undertaking morality is only cultural, belonging only to ancient India, etc., not the modern world. That way one may decide that it is unnecessary and even undesirable to undertake and observe morality, to purify one’s conduct through body, speech, and mind, and to hold Right View(Samm3·Ditfhi).

THE TEN WHOLESOME COURSES OF KAMMA

THE THREE WHOLESOME BooIL Y KAMMAS

Let us then take The Buddha’s explanation of the ten courses of wholesome kamma: what they are, and their roots (non-greed, non-hatred and non­delusion).369 First, He explains the three types of wholesome bodily conduct:370 And how, bhikkhus, are there three types of bodily kamma achievement, of whole­some intention, yielding happiness, with a happy result?

To BE KIND AND COMPASSIONATE

Here, bhikkhus, abandoning the killing of beings, someone is an abstainer of the killing of beings:

367 Thus what one thinks is logical/natural/rational depends on one’s basic view. 368 See quotations in endnote lS8, p.243.

369 All details regarding the roots of the ten unwholesome courses of kamma have been taken from DhSA.i.l ‘Kusala·Kamma·Patha·Katha'(‘Discussion of the Wholesome Kamma­Course’) E.136-137. Regarding the abstinence of a Noble One, see also ‘The Four Path Knowledges’, p.332.

370 A.X.V.i.7 ‘Pathama·Saffcetanika·Suttam'(‘The Rrst “Intentional” Sutta’)

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with laid-down rod, laid-down knife, gentle and merciful towards all living beings, he dwells kind and compassionate.

Why does someone abstain from killing another? We explained it earlier. It is because of non-greed(a.Jobha) and non-hatred(a·dosa). And, as you will remember, it may be knowledge-associated (nana·sampayult11) or knowledge-dissociated(nana­·vipayutta): one may not know about the workings of kamma, or one may know about the workings of kamma.371

As we also explained earlier, one may abstain from killing out of kindness, be­cause one thinks the being is beautiful or interesting, because of custom, tradi­tion, or because one’s religion says one should abstain. One may also abstain because one wants to have a good name, or because one is afraid to be found out: one is afraid of shame, of blame or of punishment. One may abstain be­cause one thinks it is a dishonourable thing to do, or because one has under­taken the precept to abstain from killing. Lastly, one may abstain because one has attained the Stream-Entry Path Knowledge(Sot·Aj1atti-Magga·Nana): it makes it impossible for one ever again deliberately to kill.

After explaining the wholesome kamma of abstaining from killing, The Buddha explains the wholesome kamma of abstaining from stealing.

NOT TO BE A THIEF

Abandoning the taking of what has not been given, one is an abstainer of the taking of what has not been given:

that which is another’s wealth •. possessions, in the village or in the forest, one is by theft not a stealer of that which has not been given.

Here again, to abstain from theft is because of non-greed(a·lobha) and non-hatred (a·dasa): associated with knowledge of the workings of kamma, or dissociated from knowledge of the workings of kamma.

And again, one may abstain from stealing out of kindness, because of custom, tradition, or because one’s religion says one should abstain. One may also ab­stain because one wants to have a good name, or because one is afraid to be found out: one is afraid of shame, of blame or of punishment. One may abstain because one thinks it is a dishonourable thing to do, or because one has under­taken the precept to abstain from stealing. And again, one may abstain because one has attained the Stream-Entry Path Knowledge(Sot·Aj1atti-Magga·Nana): it makes it impossible for one ever again deliberately to take what has not been given.

After explaining the wholesome kamma of abstaining from stealing, The Buddha explains the wholesome kamma of abstaining from sexual misconduct.

NOT TO BE ONE WHO ENGAGES IN SEXUAL MISCONDUCT

Abandoning sexual misconduct, one is an abstainer of sexual misconduct: [1] with those under their mother’s guardianship,

[2] with those under their father’s guardianship,

[3] with those under their mother’s and father’s guardianship, [4] with those under their brother’s guardianship,

[5] with those under their sister’s guardianship,

[6] with those under their relative’s guardianship,

[7] with those under their family’s guardianship,

[8] with those under a religious community’s guardianship,

371 This is Kamma-Qwnership Knowledge, see ‘The Rve Types of Knowledge’, p.S6.

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[9] with those having a husband, [10] with those entailing a penalty,

even with those garlanded with flowers [of betrothal], one is not an offender in such conduct.

Here again, to abstain from sexual misconduct is because of non-greed(a·ldlha) and non-hatred(a·dasa): associated with knowledge of the workings of kamma, or dissociated from knowledge of the workings of kamma.

And again, one may abstain from sexual misconduct out of kindness, because one does not wish to harm the other person, or the person’s family, etc. One may abstain from sexual misconduct because of custom, tradition, or because one’s religion says one should abstain. One may also abstain because one wants to have a good name, or because one is afraid to be found out: one is afraid of shame, of blame, or of punishment. One may abstain because one thinks it is a dishonourable thing to do, or because one has undertaken the precept to abstain from sexual misconduct. And again, one may abstain because one has attained the Stream-Entry Path Knowledge(Sot·APatti·Magga·Nana): it makes it impossible for one ever again deliberately to engage in sexual misconduct.

That is the three wholesome courses of bodily kamma: not to be a killer (to be gentle, kind, and compassionate towards all beings); not to be a thief, and not to be an adulterer.

THE FoUR WHOLESOME VERBAL KAMMAS

Then The Buddha explains the four wholesome courses of verbal kamma:

And how, bhikkhus, are there four types of verbal kamma achievement, of wholesome intention, yielding happiness, with a happy result?

NOT TO BE A LIAR

Here, bhikkhus, abandoning untl1le speech, someone is an abstainer of untl1le speech: at the coundl, or at a meeting, or amidst his relatives, or amidst a crowd, or amidst the royal family.

Summoned and asked as a witness: ‘Now good man, tell whatever you know’;

· he not knowing, says ‘I do not know’, or knowing, says ‘I know’; • or not seeing, says ‘I do not see’, or seeing, says ‘I see’.

Thus, for one’s own sake, or another’s sake, or some material trifle’s sake, one is not in full awareness a speaker of untl1lth.

Here again, to abstain from telling lies is because of non-greed (a·lobha) and non­hatred(a·dosa): associated with knowledge of the workings of kamma, or dissoci­ated from knowledge of the workings of kamma.

And again, one may abstain from telling lies because of custom, tradition, or because one’s religion says one should abstain. One may also abstain because one wants to have a good name, or because one is afraid to be found out: one is afraid of shame, of blame, or of punishment. One may abstain from telling lies because one has too much respect for the truth, and one thinks it dishonourable to tell lies. One may also abstain because one has undertaken the precept to ab­stain from telling lies. And again, one may abstain because one has attained the Stream-Entry Path Knowledge(Sot·Aj1atti-Magga·Nana): it makes it impossible for one ever deliberately to tell a lie.

After explaining the wholesome kamma of abstaining from lies, The Buddha explains the wholesome kamma of abstaining from slander.

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NOT TO BE A SLANDERER

Abandoning slanderous speech, one is an abstainer of slanderous speech:

· from here having heard, there one does not tell, these to divide,

• and there having heard, to these one does not tell, those to divide.

Thus of the divided one is a uniter, one is an originator of companionship, by unity pleased, unity enjoying, in unity delighting, one is a speaker of unity-making speech.

Here again, to abstain from slander is because of non-greed(a.Jooha) and non­hatred(a·dosa): associated with knowledge of the workings of kamma, or dissoci­ated from knowledge of the workings of kamma.

And again, one may abstain from slander because of custom, tradition, or be­cause one’s religion says one should abstain. One may also abstain because one wants to have a good name, or because one is afraid to be found out: one is afraid of shame, of blame or of punishment. One may abstain from slander be­cause one does not like dissension and disunity, and one thinks it dishonourable to slander others. One may also abstain because one has undertaken the precept to abstain from slander.372 And again, one may abstain because one has attained the Non-Return Path Knowledge(An.Agami-Magga.Nana): it makes it impossible for one ever deliberately to engage in slander.

After explaining the wholesome kamma of abstaining from slander, The Buddha explains the wholesome kamma of abstaining from harsh speech.

NOT To BE A SPEAKER OF HARSH SPEECH

Abandoning harsh speech, one is an abstainer of harsh speech:

· whatever words that are faultless,

· pleasing to the ear, affectionate, that go to the heart, are polite, • that are desirable to very many, that are dear to very many, one is a speaker of such speech.

Here again, to abstain from harsh speech is because of non-greed(a·kJbha) and non-hatred(a·dosa): associated with knowledge of the workings of kamma, or dis­sociated from knowledge of the workings of kamma.

And again, one may abstain from harsh speech because of kindness: for exam­ple, the other person may be a child, and one does not wish to hurt the child. One may abstain from harsh speech also because of custom, tradition, or because one’s religion says one should abstain. One may also abstain because one wants to have a good name, or because one is afraid to be found out: one is afraid of shame, of blame or of punishment. One may abstain from harsh speech because one likes peace and quiet, and one thinks it dishonourable to speak harshly. One may also abstain because one has undertaken the precept to abstain from harsh speech. And again, one may abstain because one has attained the Non-Return Path Knowledge(An.Agami-Magga·Nana): it makes it impossible for one ever again to speak harshly.

After explaining the wholesome kamma of abstaining from harsh speech, The Buddha explains the wholesome kamma of abstaining from prattle.

NOT TO BE A PRATTLER

Abandoning prattle, one is an abstainer of prattle:

372 For the precept against slander, see the Iivelihood-as-eighth morality, endnote 108, p.237.

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· a speaker of the timely, • a speaker of Discipline;

· a speaker of the factual, • one is an utterer of of memorable speech,

·a speaker of the useful, timely, with an aim, with an end,

• a speaker of Dhamma, and with a purpose connected

Here again, to abstain from prattle is because of non-greed(a.Jobha) and non­hatred(a·dosa): associated with knowledge of the workings of kamma, or dissoci­ated from knowledge of the workings of kamma.

Here, one may abstain from prattle because of respect: for example, the other person may be a monk, and one does not wish to be rude by prattling with him. One may abstain from prattle also because of custom, tradition, or because one’s religion says one should abstain. One may also abstain because one wants to have a good name, or because one is afraid of shame, of blame or of punishment.

One may abstain from prattle because one has too much respect for the faculty of speech, and one thinks it dishonourable to prattle. One may also abstain be­cause one has undertaken the precept to abstain from prattle. And again, one may abstain because one has attained the Arahant Path-Knowledge(A/Qhatta·Mag­gal/ana): it makes it impossible for one ever again to prattle.

When we explained the unwholesome verbal courses of kamma, we explained what subjects The Buddha says one should not talk about. But He explains also what subjects one should talk about. He lists ten subjects:165

1) talk of wanting little(app.Jcr/7a·katf7ii)

2) talk of contentment(santvttfli’katf7ii)

3) talk of seclusion(paYiveka’katf7ii)

4) talk of dissociation(asanixlgga’katf7ii)

5) talk of exerting energy(vUiY’a/Qmbha’katf7ii)

6) talk of morality(S1B’katf7a)

7) talk of concentration(samiidhi·katf7ii)

8)talk of wisdom(paififii’katf7ii) 9) talk of liberation(vbnutti·katf7ii)

10) talk of knowledge and vision liberation(Yimutti·ifiina·das;ana·katf7ii)

The Buddha explains that to speak of these subjects is suitable because:

· it leads to complete disenchantment(ek”anl11nibbidiiya)

· it leads to dispassion(mgiiya)

· it leads to cessation(nh”cxfhaya)

· it leads to peace(upasamaya)

· it leads to direct knowledge(abhiififiiya)

· it leads to enlightenment(sambafhaya) • it leads to Nibbana(Nibbiiniiya)

That then is the four wholesome courses of verbal kamma: not to be a liar (to speak only the truth, or remain silent), not to be a slanderer (to speak only as to unite the divided and keep the united united), not to be a speaker of harsh speech (to speak politely and gently), and not to be a prattler (to speak of only things worthwhile, speech that serves a good purpose).

THE THREE WHOLESOME MENTAL KAMMAS

Then The Buddha explains the three wholesome courses of mental kamma:

And how, bhikkhus, are there three types of mental kamma achievement, of whole­some intention, yielding happiness, with a happy result?

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NOT TO BE COVETOUS

Here, bhikkhus, someone is a non-coveter:

that which is another’s wealth and possessions, of that one is uncovetous [not think­ing]: ‘Oh, that what is another’s would be mine!’

Here again, to abstain from covetousness is because of non-greed(a·bbha) and non-hatred(a·dasa): associated with knowledge of the workings of kamma, or dis­sociated from knowledge of the workings of kamma.

And again, one may abstain from covetousness because, instead of wanting another’s property, one rejoices over the other one’s good fortune: that is sym­pathetic joy(mudiM). Again, one may abstain from covetousness because one has attained the Arahant Path-Knowledge(Aiahalt11·Magga·Mna): it makes it impossible for one ever again to covet another’s property.

After explaining the wholesome kamma of abstaining from covetousness, The Buddha explains the wholesome kamma of abstaining from ill-will.

NOT TO HARBOUR ILL -WILL

One is one of no ill-will, one of no malicious mind” intention [who thinks]:

‘May these beings be without hatred, without ill-will, without vexation, may they hap­pily look after themselves!’

Here again, to abstain from ill-will is because of non-greed(a·IOOha) and non­hatred(a·dosa): associated with knowledge of the workings of kamma, or dissoci­ated from knowledge of the workings of kamma.

And again, one may abstain from ill-will because, instead of wanting another being to die or be harmed, one wants all beings to live and be happy: that is loving-kindness(metta), and compassion(karona). Again, one may abstain from iII­will because one has attained the Non-Return Path Knowledge(An·Agamj·Magga­·Niina): it makes it impossible for one ever again to engage in ill-will.

After explaining the wholesome kamma of abstaining from ill-will, The Buddha explains the wholesome kamma of abstaining from holding wrong view, of hold­ing Right View(Sammfj.[)j.tthi).

To HOLD RIGHT VIEW

One is one of Right View, not one of pervelted view [and one thinks]:

[1] ‘There is offering, [7] there is a mother,

[2] there is almsgiving, [8] there is a father;373

[3] there ~s sacrifice; . [9] there are beings spontaneously born;

[4] th~re IS a pleasant or painful [10] there are in the world ascetics and Brahmins,

fl1llt o~ ~ult of kamma; rightly faring, rightly practising, who with

[5] there IS thiS world, direct knowledge (having themselves realized

[6] there is another world; this world and the other world) dedare it.’

This is the standard Right View described by The Buddha. It is called the ten­based Right View(dasa·vatff1ukfj Samma·Difthi). It affirms the workings of kamma, and rebirth, etc. When He speaks of basic Right View, this is usually the type of view He is referring to.374

373 This does not mean that mothers and fathers exist according to reality; it means cer­tain results arise because of unwholesome/wholesome kamma performed towards one’s parents. See further explanation footnote 11, p.2, and endnote 203, p.249

374 Right View: this is what is also called Kamma-Ownership Right View{Kamma’S5akafa’Sam­(!lktue ••• (utrtfut< rwd. pwp.)

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To hold Right View is because of non-greed, non-hatred, and non-delusion, and it is always knowledge-associated. But so long as one has not seen the workings of dependent origination, one’s Right View is based on faith, and is for that reason uncertain: sometimes one holds it, sometimes one does not. Only the Stream­Entry Path Knowledge(Sot·APatti·Magga·Nana) makes one’s Right View certain, be­cause one will have known and seen dependent origination in regular and nega­tive order: then can one not ever again hold wrong view about kamma, nor any of the twenty types of identity vieW(sakk5ya·difthi).166 Then does one also possess the Right View that knows the difference between Right View and wrong view. 167

To hold the view that affirms the workings of kamma is the most important of all the wholesome courses of kamma. Why? Because when one holds Right View, it is very difficult to do unwholesome things. Indeed, if one has attained to the Right View of a Noble Disciple, many unwholesome things will have become im­possible for one ever again to do. 168

That concludes The Buddha’s explanation of the three wholesome courses of mental kamma: not to be covetous of another’s property, not to harbour ill-will (but to harbour loving-kindness and compassion), and not to hold a wrong view that denies the workings of unwholesome and wholesome kamma, but to hold Right View, which affirms the workings of unwholesome and wholesome kamma.

In all, there are ten wholesome courses of kamma: three wholesome courses of bodily kamma, four wholesome courses of verbal kamma, and three wholesome courses of mental kamma. They all arise owing to non-greed(a·IOOha) and non­hatred(a·dosa), and can be knowledge-dissociated(nana’vWi1yutt;1)or knowledge­associated (nana·sampayutt;1}.

THE REsUL 15 OF WHOLESOME KAMMA

What is the result of such kamma? The Buddha explained it to the bhikkhus:

THE RESULTS OF WHOLESOME BODILY KAMMA

With the three types of bodily kamma achievement, with wholesome intention as root, bhikkhus, beings at the breakup of the body, after death, in a good destination, a heav­enly world are reborn.

THE RESULTS OF WHOLESOME VERBAL KAMMA

Or with the four types of verbal kamma achievement, with wholesome intention as root, bhikkhus, beings at the breakup of the body, after death, in a good destination, a heavenly world are reborn.

THE RESULTS OF WHOLESOME MENTAL KAMMA

Or with the three types of mental kamma achievement, with wholesome intention as root, bhikkhus, beings at the breakup of the body, after death, in a good destination, a heavenly world are reborn.

ma·Difthi}. Hence, in for example, S.V.III.i.3 ‘Bhikkhu’Suttam'(‘The Bhikkhu SUtta’), The Buddha explains: ‘And what is the beginning of wholesome things(kusatanani dhammanath) ? Morality well purified(sil:ln·Qlsu·visuddhath), and view straightened (di(tf7i Ql ujuka) [SA: kamma­ownership Right View(kamma·ssakaf;j·difthiJJ.’ And He explains that once those two things have been achieved, then the bhikkhu can practise the four foundations of mindfulness. And The Buddha says the same with regard to practice of the Noble Eightfold Path (S.\I.I), and the seven enlightenment factors (S.\I.II). See further ‘The Rve Types of Knowledge’, p.S6.

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The ten wholesome courses of kamma are praised by The Buddha as the wholesome(AvsaIa), as useful(attf7a), as blameless(anavajja), as things with a happy result(sukha·Yipaka dhamma). And because they lead to rebirth in heaven(sagga), He praises them as the bright way(sukl<a·magga).169

The Buddha explains further that if we make someone else engage in the ten wholesome courses of kamma, they become twenty things that take us to a good destination, even heaven;17l1 if we also approve of the ten wholesome courses of kamma, they become thirty things that take us to a good destination;171 and if we also praise the ten wholesome courses of kamma, they become forty things that take us to a good destination. 172

CONCLUSION

That concludes our explanation of the ten unwholesome courses of kamma, and the ten wholesome courses of kamma. The ten unwholesome courses of kamma lead to rebirth in the animal world, the ghost world, even in hell, whereas the ten wholesome courses of kamma lead to rebirth in the human world, or deva worlds.

Rebirth in the human or deva world, however, is not the goal of the Dhamma, is it? Such rebirth can be attained also outside a Buddha’s Dispensation. Thus, the wholesome courses of kamma are not unique to a Buddha’s Dispensation. Unique to The Buddha’s Dispensation is the teaching of the Four Noble Truths:37s

1)Suffering …………………………… (dUkkha)13) Cessation ……………. (nirodha)

2) The origin ……………. (samudaya) 4) The path ……………… (magga)

That is The Buddhas’ most superior Dhamma teaching(Buddhanamsamukl<afi1sika Dhamma·desana). It can lead to the most wholesome of all wholesome things: the attainment of a Path&Fruition, ultimately to Arahantship, the end of birth, ageing and death.

What is necessary for the attainment of a Path&Fruition(Magga·A’7ala)? Successful samatha and vipassana meditation is necessary. 173 But for our samatha and vipas­sana meditation to be successful, it needs to be supported by much other whole­some kamma. In other words, for us to succeed in our meditation, we need to have accomplished much practice of the three merit-work bases: not only in this life but also in past lives. And that practice needs to have been of a high quality: consistent and continuous. That is what we shall now discuss.

KNOWLEDGE AND CONDUCT

The kind of past practice necessary for one to attain a Path&Fruition (even Ara­hantship), is called knowledge and conduct(Yiffi·Q1/Qna):174

1) Knowledge(vtfja) is the same as wisdom(panna), and is insight knowledge (Yi­passana·nana): mundane(~) and supramundane(loAvtt11/Q).376 Mundane

37S This is the culmination of what is called The Buddha’s progressive instruction (anu­pubbi·katM) (see ‘Tambadathika the Executioner’, p.181). See, for example, D.i.3 J4mb­atfha’Suttam’ (‘The Ambattha Sutta’), and M.II.i.6 Vp8Ii’Suttam'(‘The Upali Sutta’).

376 VsM.vii.133 Buddh·Ai1u.ssati'(‘Buddha Recollection’) PP.vii.30 explains that according to D.i.3 J4mbatfha’Suttam’ (‘The Ambattha Sutta’), knowledge is eight knowledges: 1) Insight knowledge into mentality-materiality, 2) Mind-made power knowledge, 3) Various-Powers Knowledge, 4) Divine-ear knowledge,S) Ottlers’-mind knowledge, 6) Former-lives recollec­tion knowledge, 7) Divine-€ye knowledge, 8) Taints-Destruction Knowledge (Nos.2-8 are explained at footnote 239, p.80). And according to ‘8haya·8herava·SUttam’ (‘The Fear&

(!lktue ••• (utrtfut< rwd. pwp.)

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knowledge takes as object the formed element(SaJikhal11·dhatv), which is the five aggregates or mentality-materiality, of the three planes. Supramundane knowledge takes as object the Unformed element(AsaJikhal11·dhatv), Nibbana. When discussing the past practice necessary for attaining a Path&Fruition, we do not include supramundane knowledge, because if there is supramun­dane knowledge, it means one has already attained a Path&Fruition.

2) Conduct(ca/Qna) is the same as the three merit-work bases(punfia·kiriya·vatthu). offering(ctana), morality(sila) and meditation(bhavana). by meditation is meant samatha meditation (samatf7a’bhavana) and again insight meditation(vpas;ana­·bhavana). But the three merit-work bases may be called conduct only when they are the proper practice, and are practised consistently and continuously.

To explain knowledge and conduct, we shall (to make it easier) begin byexplain­ing conduct(ca/QnaJ.

CONDUCT

Conduct(ca/Qna) is fifteen things:377

1) Morality(S/s). we discussed morality when we discussed the first merit-work base(punna·kiriya·vatthu).378 Let us briefly mention all the factors again.

i) For laypeople, morality means habitual training in the five and eight precepts, or the ten precepts. It includes Right Livelihood(Samma·A.fva), which is a livelihood that does not break any of the precepts, and is not one of the five wrong trades: trade in weapons, beings, flesh, liquor, and poison.379

ii) For bhikkhus, morality means the bhikkhu morality(bhikk/7u·sila), the higher morality(adhi·S/7a), which is the fourfold purification morality ( catv-parisuddhi·s/S).175

a) Purification through Palimokkha-restraint morality(patimokkha’samvaJO­·sDa), habitually keeping the two hundred and twenty-seven precepts of the bhikkhu rule.

b) Purification through restraint of the sense faculties(b1driya·samva/Q·S/7a). habitually restraining the eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, and mind faculty, by attending to one’s meditation subject, be it samatha or

Dread Sutta’), knowledge is three knowledges(te·vi.ffa): the above 6, 7 and 8. When speak­ing of past practice, however, supramundane knowledge (No.8) is usually not included.

377 In the introduction to M. II.i. 3 ‘Sekha’Suttam'(‘The Trainee Sutta’), The Buddha tells the the Venerable Ananda to instruct the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu about the ‘Noble Disciple on the path(.!l:l\”ho p5fipado}’. The the Venerable Ananda explains: ‘Here, Mahanama, the Noble Disciple is attained to morality(S/7a·.!ilmpanno), in the faculties guarded at the doors(indtiyesu gutta·dvaro), in food moderate(bhojane mattafiffU), devoted to wakefulness(jagatiyath anuyutto), possessed of seven right things(.!ilttahi .!il·ddhammehi .!ilmanagafD), one who acquires without difficulty(nikama’15bhi) the four jhanas(catufU/athjh5nanath), which are the higher mentalities (iibhi·cef;Jsikanath), presentlY-<lccurring happy abidings(diftha-dhamma·sukha·vihiifijnath), one who acquires them without distress(a’kiccha’15bhi}, without trouble(a·kasita·15bhi}.’ The seven right things he then explains as the Noble Disciple’s being 1) faithful(saddho), 2) conscientious (hitima), 3) shameful(ottapp/), 4) very leamed(lahu’$Ufo), 5) of resolute energy(iiraddha·vitiyo), 6) mindful (.!iltima), and 7) wise(pafiffava). And he explains that these things constitute the Noble Disciple’s conduct(cataQa). At the end of his analysis, The Buddha endorses it with ‘Sadhu: 378 See ‘Morality’, p.69.

379 See quotation endnote 103, p.237.

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vipassana. That way defilements do not arise by way of the six facul­ties.380

c) Purification through livelihood purification morality(5}7va-parisuddhi’sila):

Right Livelihood(Samma·Jjj7va)for bhikkhus. That is to abstain from wrong livelihood: livelihood that does not break any of the Patimok­kha precepts.381

d) Purification through requisite-related moralityiPaa:aya·sannsit11·S17a).

Reflecting with wise attention upon the four requisites: robe, alms­food, dwelling, and medicine.

2) Faculty restraint(indJiya’samva/Q): it is the same as the bhikkhu’s second purifi­cation: habitual restraint of the eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, and mind faculty, by attending to one’s meditation subject, be it samatha or vipassana. That way defilements do not arise by way of the six faculties.

3) Moderation in food(bhojanemattaififuta): habitually to eat only so much as is necessary to support one’s practice, and maintain the body.382

4) Devotion to wakefulness(jagao/·anuyq;>a): habitually not to sleep during the day, and never to sleep more than is necessary: in between sleeping, habit­ually to practise meditation.

5) Faith(saddha): strong and powerful, deep faith383 in The Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha, in the workings of kamma, and in dependent origination, re­birth, and other planes of existence. The habitual practice of offering(ctana) is in this classification included under faith.

6) Mindfulness(sati): habitual practice of the four foundations of mindfulness: mindfulness of the body, feelings, consciousness, and dhammas.

7) ConscienCe(hh”ij: habitually to be conscientious not to do wrong through body, speech, and mind.

8) Shame(ottappa): habitually to be ashamed of doing wrong through body, speech, and mind.

9) Great learning(bahu’sacca):176 habitually to study and inquire about the Texts, so as to know the difference between the five c1inging-aggregates(khandha), the elements(dhalv), and the sense bases(ayal11na), which are the First Noble Truth, the Noble Truth of Suffering(Dukkha AJiya·Saa:a). 177 Also to study and inquire about dependent origination(pa(ia:a’samupp5da), so as to know the ori­gin of the fIVe aggregates(paifca·kkhandha), the Second Noble Truth, the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering (Dukkha’Samudaya AJiya·Saa:a). And to study and inquire about the four foundations of mindfulness(sati·patthana), so as to know the way to the cessation of suffering, the Fourth Noble Truth, the Noble Truth of the Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering(Dukkha·Nirodha·Gamini Pa(i,oada AJiya·Saa:a).

Great learning includes also knowing and seeing the five aggregates, and knowing and seeing their origin. That is the two knowledges preparatory to vipassana: the Mentality-Materiality Definition Knowledge(Nama·RQpa·PaJiccheda-

380 For details, see endnote 118, p.238.

381 For details regarding wrong livelihood for a bhikkhu, see endnote 120, p.238.

382 In S.N.xii.7 ‘Rath’Opama’Suttam'(‘The Chariot-Simile SUtta’), The Buddha explains this as eating in accordance with the reflection quoted at ‘The Bhikkhu’s Morality’, p.73.

383 For an analysis of faith(saatha), see ‘Faith’, p.369.

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·Niina), and the Cause-Apprehending Knowledge(Paa:aya·PaJiggaha·Mna). We discussed them earlier.384

10) Energy(vi”Jiya): this is habitual practice of the four kinds of effort(padhana):178

i) The effort to restrain(samva/Q·padhana): with energy and effort to restrain oneself from accomplishing unwholesome kamma through body, speech, and mind.

ii) The effort to abandoniPahana;aadhana): any unwholesome kamma that one does through body, speech, and mind, one stops with energy and effort.

iii) The effort to develop(bhiivanii-padhana): with energy and effort one tries to develop and undertake new wholesome kamma through body, speech, and mind. That is, one tries to develop more and more know­ledge(Yijjii) and conduct(ca/Qna).

iv) The effort to maintain(anu/Qkkhana;aadhana): any wholesome kamma that one does through body, speech, and mind, one maintains: one conti­nues with one’s work.

11) WisdomiPafiliii):V!1 this is insight knowledge proper. Earlier, we discussed the eleven mundane insight knowledges. The first two are not really insight knowledges, but only preparatory knowledges. The next nine are insight knowledges proper.38S And insight knowledge is included under conduct, when it produces rebirth. How?

So long as one is not an Arahant, then even though there is no craving when one practises insight meditation, there is still volition that can produce rebirth; there is still the establishment of kammic consciousness. It is caused by the latencies, and cannot be otherwise. 180

Also, insight knowledge may actually be interspersed with very subtle en­joyment(abhb7andana) for that knowledge: that is sensual craving(kiima·tanha). And if one has no jhana, then at the near-death moment one’s insight knowledge may be the strongest wholesome kamma to mature. In that case, it will produce rebirth into either the human or sensual-realm deva world. 181

12)First jhana ………….. (pathamajhana) I 14) Third jhana …. (l11tiyajhana)

13) Second jhana …. (dutiyajhana) 15) Fourth jhana (catuttf1ajhana)

This is samatha practice. The four jhanas are what The Buddha calls Right Concentration (Sammii Samadhi). 182 With the four jhanas, the mind becomes strong and powerful, and there is bright, brilliant, radiant light, which is the light of wisdom: light with which to penetrate to ultimate truth, and practise insight on ultimate mentality and ultimate materiality of past, future, and present, internal and external, gross and subtle, inferior and superior, far and near.

These fifteen things are what is called conduct(ca/Qna).183 Then we have know­ledge(vijjii).

384 See ‘The Two Preparatory Insight Knowledges’, p.88. 38S See ‘The Sixteen Insight Knowledges’, p.l09.

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KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge(vtfja) is again insight knowledge(vipa.s:;ana·nana), but only such insight knowledge as does not produce rebirth.

That then concludes our explanation of knowledge and conduct(v!ff3·Q1/QnaJ.

Knowledge and conduct is the kind of past kamma required for one to attain a Path&Fruition(Magga·PhalaJ. Please try to keep it in mind when we later mention people who developed such knowledge in past lives, attaining the highest of the mundane insight knowledges, the Formations-Equanimity Knowledge (SaJiWr­·lJpekk/13·Nana)·

THE RESULTS

Properly to conclude our explanation of the wholesome, however, we need also to mention that the practice of knowledge and conduct in past lives needs to be balanced: there needs to be both knowledge and conduct. Why?

To explain it, we may use a simile.184 Knowledge is like the eyes of a human being, and conduct is like the human being’s feet.386 We have thus four kinds of person:

1) The one who has practised conduct, but has not practised knowledge. That is like someone who can walk but is blind.

2) The one who has practised knowledge, but has not practised conduct. That is like someone who can see but is crippled.

3) The one who has practised neither knowledge nor conduct. That is like someone who is blind as well as crippled. It is the kind of person we dis­cussed in connection with the’Gaddula·Baddha’sutta: the uneducated ordi­nary person(puthu1jana).

4) The one who has practised both knowledge and conduct. That is like some­one who can both see and walk.

INSUFFIOENT KNoWLEDGE

If our practice constitutes mainly conduct(QI/Qna), it is like developing healthy limbs. Such practice makes it possible for us to encounter a Buddha’s Dispensa­tion. Such practice helps us get reborn as a human being, in a suitable place, with a healthy body, with fully functioning faculties, with the right kind of par­ents, where there is a Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha. But insufficient practice of knowledge is like having poor eyesight. Not having such practice of knowledge, we shall be unable properly to know and see the Dhamma, even when taught by The Buddha Himself.

386 VbhA.iv.20S ‘Magga·Sacca·Niddesa· Va(IIJana'(‘Description of the Path-Truth Exposition’) DD.iv.S70 explains how knowledge and conduct are induded in the Noble Eightfold Path:

Knowledge = Right View/Right Intention (which corresponds to insight wisdom not leading to rebirth); Conduct = the remaining factors. In the same way, Knowledge = vipassana; Conduct = samatha; Knowledge = the aggregate (training) of wisdom; Conduct = the agg­regates (trainings) of morality & concentration. And it explains that endowed with these three aggregates and trainings, the Noble Disciple is like a traveller with eyes that can see and feet that can walk, who eventually realizes Nibbana, the Deathless.

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The Workings of Kamma

KING PASENADI

A good example is King Pasenadi of Kosala, one of The Buddha’s chief patrons.

He had become king, enjoyed royal power and royal pleasures, because of past practice of conduct(QI/QnaJ: offering, keeping the precepts, and other works of merit. And because of that past practice, he met The Buddha, and became a great patron of The Buddha. But because of insufficient practice of knowledge (viffi), he was unable properly to know and see the Dhamma: he never attained any Path or Fruition knowledge. Thus, even though we can find suttas that de­scribe him discussing the Dhamma with The Buddha, it is only superficial Dhamma: on a conceptuallevel.387

THE BHIKKHU SAT!

Another example is the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman.388 Owing to past prac­tice of conduct(QI/Qna), he met The Buddha, gained faith in The Buddha, even ordained as a bhikkhu, and undertook the threefold higher training. But when The Buddha explained His past lives to the bhikkhus, the bhikkhu Sati could not understand it properly: he thought it was one consciousness that migrated from life to life, one consciousness that experienced the results of past unwholesome and wholesome kamma. Because of insufficient practice of knowledge(vtfja), he was unable properly to understand the Dhamma. Even surrounded by wise bhik­khus, and taught by The Buddha Himself, the bhikkhu Sati could not understand dependent origination. 185

SACCAKA THE PHILOSOPHER

A third example is Saccaka, 186 a scholar who went round debating with people.

Owing to past practice of conduct(QI/Qna), he met The Buddha, discussed the Dhamma with The Buddha, and gained respect for The Buddha. But owing to insufficient practice of knowledge(viffi), he could not fully accept The Buddha’s teaching, and did not take refuge in The Buddha.

There are a number of such examples, of disciples of other teachings discussing the Dhamma with The Buddha, admitting that His teaching was superior, yet being unable to give up their own view. 187

INSUFFIOENT CoNDUCT

Let us then say we have failed to practise conduct: have failed to practise offer­ing, morality, and faculty restraint; have failed to develop sufficiently strong faith in The Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha; have failed to develop sufficiently strong faith in the workings of kamma, dependent origination, rebirth, and other planes of existence; have failed to develop conscience and shame; have failed to prac­tise the four right efforts; and have failed to develop concentration. That is like having deformed limbs.

Then even if we could understand The Buddha’s Teachings, it will never take place, because our conduct is that of an uneducated ordinary person. Such con­duct means we accomplish much unwholesome kamma through body, speech, and mind: for example, killing, stealing, engaging in sexual misconduct, telling lies, drinking beer&wine liquor, and, worst of all, holding wrong view. That con-

387 See, for example, S.I. III ‘Kosala Samyutta’ (‘Kosala Section’).

388 M.I.iV.8 ‘Maha· 7iJnha’Sankhaya’Suttam'(‘The Great Craving’s-Destruction Sutta’)

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duct means we shall tend towards rebirth in unhappy destinations. If we are re­born in hell, the animal world, or the ghost world, The Buddha says it is almost impossible for us to escape.389 In the meantime, a Buddha may arise, and we will have lost the opportunity to encounter His Teachings. It is only as either human beings or devas that we can encounter a Buddha’s Dispensation.

Even if we do gain a human rebirth, our insufficient practice of those factors of conduct(QI/Qna·dhamma) will mean that we shall be reborn at an unsuitable time, when there is no Buddha’s Dispensation. Why? Because a Buddha’s Dispensation is very, very rare.39O Many, many aeons can pass without a Buddha arising. And even if there is a Buddha’s Dispensation, we shall tend to be reborn in an unsuit­able place, with the wrong kind of parents, where wrong view prevails, with no knowledge of or access to The Buddha’s Dispensation. And we shall also run into trouble as human beings, and be prone to sickness. In that case, it will be very, very difficult for us to encounter a Buddha’s Teachings.

Our eyesight may be good, meaning that we would be able to understand the Dhamma, and maybe even attain Path&Fruition. But because of insufficient con­duct, we shall be unable to meet The Buddha’s Dispensation, because of’deform­ed limbs’.

MAHADHANA LORD-SON

A good example is Mahadhana Lord-Son, son of a treasurer.391 He was born into a very rich family in Baral)asi, and married a girl from a very rich family. Be­cause he did not practise morality, he spent his entire fortune on drink, flowers, perfume, song, music and dance, etc., to end up in poverty. When The Buddha arose in the world, Mahadhana and his wife were already approaching old age. And they encountered The Buddha’s Dispensation only when they in their old age went to the Isipatana monastery to beg for food.

When The Buddha one day saw Mahadhana and his wife, He told the Venerable Ananda that if Mahadhana as a young man had applied himself to business, he would have become the chief treasurer in Baral)asi. And if as a young man, Ma­hadhana had become a monk, he would have become an Arahant, and his wife a Non-Returner. In the same way, if as a middle-aged man, Mahadhana had app­lied himself to business, he could have become the city’s second treasurer, and as a monk he would have become a Non-Returner, and his wife a Once Returner. And if he had done these things as an elderly man, he would have become the city’s third treasurer, or would as a monk have become a Once Returner, and his wife a Stream Enterer. But because he had failed to practise conduct(QI/Qna), he now had nothing at all: neither the wealth of a layman nor the wealth of a monk. And at death, he was destined to be reborn in hell.

389 In this regard, The Buddha uses the simile of the blind turtle: see quotation endnote 78, p.233.

390 The Buddha explains the rarity of a Buddha in A. Lxiii ‘Eka’Puggala’ Leggo'(‘One Person Chapter’), A.V.IILv.3 ‘Sarandada’Suttam'(‘The 5arandada Sutta’), and He says in DhP.xiv.4 ‘Buddha· Legga'(‘The Buddha Chapter’): ‘Rare it is to become a human being; hard is a mortal’s life; hard it is the True Dhamma to hear; rare is a Buddha’s arising.’

391 DhPA.xi.9 ‘Mahadhana·Setthi·Putta· Lettf7u'(‘The Case of Mahadhana Lord-Son’)

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KING AJATASATTU

Another good example is King Ajatasattu. We shall mention him many times in the course of our explanations. He was the son of King Bimbisara, who was a Stream Enterer, and great patron of The Buddha and Sangha. In order to become king, King Ajatasattu had his father killed. Then, one night, he went to see The Buddha, and The Buddha gave him the great teaching that is the ‘Samaffffa·Phala’ sutta.392 The king had all the right conditions for attaining Stream Entry like his father. But because he had failed to practise conduct(ca/Qna) earlier in his life, he had had his father killed. Killing one’s father is one of the weighty, uninter­venable kammas: the result is inescapable rebirth in hell in the next life.393 So, King Ajatasattu was unable to attain a Path&Fruition, and remained a common person (puti1u1jana).

BoRN IN AN UNSUITABLE PLACE

Another example is people who have not been born in what The Buddha calls a suitable place(patinipa·dex1): that is, people born in a country where there is no Buddha’s Dispensation(Buddha·S5sana).394 For example, now in the Sangha, there are a growing number of bhikkhus from North America and Northern Europe. There are also a growing number of laypeople from those countries who gain faith in The Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. But it is very often difficult for them to accept The Buddha’s Teachings: that is perhaps because of insufficient practice of knowledge(Yiffi) in the past and present. It is very often also difficult for them to encounter the True Dhamma(Saddhamma): that is perhaps because of insuffi­cient practice of conduct(ca/Qna) in the past and present: it is difficult to say for sure. When you discern dependent origination, you will be able to understand the workings of such kamma properly.

That concludes our explanation of unwholesome and wholesome kamma. Next, we shall discuss the twelve categories of kamma(dva·dasa kamma).

THE TWELVE CATEGORIES OF KAMMA

The twelve categories of kamma are three sets of four:39s

· Four categories for when kamma takes effect: time of effect.

· Four categories for which type of kamma takes effect first: order of effect.

· Four categories for how kamma functions: function of effect.

392 D.i.2 ‘Samaffffa·Phala·SUttam'(‘The Asceticism-Fruit Sutta’) 393 See ‘Unwholesome Weighty Kamma’, p.168ff.

394 To reside where there is a Buddha’s Dispensation is the fourth blessing listed by The Buddha in SUN.ii.4 ‘Mangala’Suttam'(‘The Blessing Sutta’): ‘In a suitable place to reside (paptUpa·r/esa·v5sa). ,

39S These twelve categories are given in the VsM.xix.68S-687l\’ankha·Vita/Qna·lI7suOO’hi­·NiOO’eso’ (‘Exposition of the Doubt-Transcendence Purification’) PP.xix.14-16, and expla­ined, for example, at AA/ AT.III.I.iv.4 ‘Nidana’Suttam'(‘The Causation SUtta’ quoted end­note 237, p.2S2), and PaD. A fourth set of four is given in AbS.v.S3 ‘Kamma·CatIJkkam’ (‘The Kamma Tetrad’) CMA.v.21: place of effect, where and how kamma produces its re­sult. 1) unwholesome kamma (which takes effect only on the sensual-/fine-material plane); 2) sensual-sphere wholesome kamma; 3) fine-material sphere wholesome kamma; 4) imma­terial-sphere wholesome kamma.


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