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III – THE WORKINGS OF KAMMA 92

THE BUDDHA’S KNOWLEDGE OF KAMMA & RESULT

The workings of kamma and kamma’s result is so profound and difficult to see that only a Buddha’s Knowledge of Kamma & Result (Kamma·Vipaka·Nana)can see it clearly: His disciples do not possess this knowledge, not even Arahants.93

This knowledge of kamma and its result is the second of what The Buddha calls His ten ‘Tathagata Powers‘ (Tathagata·Bala).

He explains it to the Venerable Sariputta:94

Again and further, Sariputta, the Tathagata understands the result (vipaka)of past, fu­ture, and present kamma that has been undertaken, by way of contingency and root, according to reality.95

And whatever, Sariputta, result of past, future, and present kamma that has been un­dertaken the Tathagata by way of contingency and root understands according to real­ity. This then, Sariputta, is a Tathagata’s Tathagata power, because of which power the Tathagata assumes the bull’s stance, roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets in motion the divine wheel.96

THE LION’S ROAR

With this Tathagata power, The Buddha roars His lion’s roar. What is His lion’s roar? He explains that it is His teaching of the five aggregates{panca·kkhandha), their origin(samudaya), and their disappearance(atthangama):97/62

[1] Thus materiality, thus materiality’s appearance(samudaya), thus materiality’s disappearance(atthangama).

[2] Thus feeling, thus feeling’s appearance, thus feeling’s disappearance.

[3] Thus perception, thus perception’s appearance, thus perception’s disappearance. [4] Thus formations, thus formations’ appearance, thus formations’ disappearance. [5] Thus consciousness, thus consciousness’s appearance, thus consciousness’s disappearance.

The five aggregates are the Noble Truth of Suffering(Dukkha Ariya·Sacca), their appearance is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering(Dukkha·Samudaya Ariya­·Sacca), their disappearance is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (Duk-

92 Reference numbers in italics refer to sutta quotations, etc. in endnotes beginning p.231.

93 In A.IVII.iii.7’Acinreyya·Suttam'(‘The “Imponderable” SUtta’), The Buddha explains: ‘The result of kamma(kamma’vipako), bhikkhus, is imponderable.’

94 M.I.ii.2 ‘Maha·Siha·Nada·Suttam'(‘The Great Lion’s-Roar Sutta’).

95 CONTINGENCY((hana): the commentary explains that this refers to the circumstances con­tingent/dependent upon which a certain kamma produces its result. It is either achieve­ment or failure with regard to four types of circumstance: l)destination(gati); 2)appearance (upadhi); 3) time(kala); 4) means(payoga). ROOT(hetu): the kamma is the root of the result. (The four types of contingency are discussed under ‘Achievement/Failure’, p.207.)

96 BULL’s(asabham) STANCE(thanam): the stance is the posture of four feet on the ground, and the bull’s stance is the supreme, highest, unshakable stance, adopted by the chief of all bulls. The Tathagata’s four feet are His four intrepidities(vesa/Ojja). DIVINE wHEEL(B/Ohma’cakka): this refers to the Dhamma-Wheel: BrahMA (divine) means here supreme, highest, superior. 97 S.II.I.iii.1 ‘Dasa·Bala·Suttam'(‘The Ten-Powers SUtta’). This is how, in D.ii.9’Mah5·Sati­·Patthana·Suttam'(‘The Great Mindfulness-Foundation Sutta’), The Buddha describes the meditating bhikkhu’s understanding of the five aggregates, before he contemplates them.

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The Workings of Kamma

kha·MrodhaAriya·Sacca). And to explain the appearance and disappearance of the five aggregates, The Buddha then gives the formula for dependent origination (pa(icca·samuppiida).

Thus, this being, that is; this arising, that arises. This not being, that is not; this ceasing, that ceases.

Next, The Buddha explains the twelve links of dependent origination: because of ignorance, volitional formations arise; because of volitional formations, con­sciousness arises, etc. We shall discuss them later.98

THE HEART OF THE BuDDHA’S TEACHING

Having now listened to The Buddha explain His own teaching, we understand that to understand the five aggregates, we need to understand dependent origi­nation and cessation, which means we need to understand the workings of kamma.

Being only disciples of The Buddha, however, we cannot fully understand the workings of kamma: that is impossible. But by practising insight meditation, dis­ciples may be able to see the connections between certain kammas and their result, and thereby gain a partial understanding of the workings of kamma.

In fact, such an understanding is essential. In fact, to be true disciples of The Buddha, the most important thing for us to do is to understand and have deep faith in the actuality of a law of kamma and kamma’s result. Why? Because, as we just heard The Buddha explain, the workings of kamma is the heart of The Buddha’s Teaching: it is the driving force of dependent origination(pa(icca’samup­piida), which is the Second Noble Truth, the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering (Samudaya Sacca), the origin of the five aggregates. So if we do not understand the workings of kamma, we cannot understand the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suf­fering(Dukk/7a·Samudaya Ariya·Sacca), the origin of the five aggregates. That means we cannot become a Noble Disciple(Ariya·SiiIaA<1), and escape suffering.99 There­fore, we must attend closely to The Buddha’s explanations of the workings of kamma. But we must always remember that although we must try to understand The Buddha’s explanations of the workings of kamma, such explanations cannot provide true understanding. To gain true understanding of the workings of kamma, we need (as far as it is possible for a disciple) to know and see the work­ings of kamma for ourselves by practising proper insight meditation,63 and attain­ing the Cause-Apprehending Knowledge(Paccaya·PaJtrgaha·Nana).loo

98 See ‘Dependent Origination’, p.107 ff.

99 VsM.xix.687 ‘Kankha· Vitara(1a’ Wsuddhi·Niddeso'(‘Exposition of the Doubt-Transcendence Purification’) PP.xix.17 explains: ‘The succession of kamma and its result in the twelve cate­gories of kamma [see p.1421l’j is clear in its true nature only to The Buddha’s Knowledge of Kamma and Its Result [Kamma·II7p5ka·Nana], which knowledge is not shared by disciples. But the succession of kamma and its result can be known in part by one practising insight [vipassana].’ VsMT explains: ‘Because it is a specialty of The Buddha, and because it is the province of the knowledge that is not shared by disciples, it is called “not shared by disci­ples” (a·s5dharalJath savakehi). That is why only a part can be known; it cannot all be known because it is not the province of such knowledge. A part must be known; knowing it all without remainder cannot be done, is inaccessible. Not knowing it at all, [the Knowledge] of Apprehending the Cause(Paccaya’Patiggaha (·N51Jaj) cannot be fulfilled.’

100 Cause-Apprehending Knowledge: see p.89.

III – The Workings of Kamma THE WORKINGS OF THE MIND

39

For us properly to understand the workings of kamma, it is first of all necessary to understand something about the workings of the mind. The Buddha explains that when the mind is alert, then within a snap of the fingers, very many thousand million consciousnesses arise and perish: they arise as series, many thousand mil­lion mental processeS(dlt11·vithij.l0l Most of them are mind-door processes: many thousand million mind-door processes arising and perishing like a river in full flow. On our plane (the sensual-sphere plane(k3m·5IaQl/Q·bhOmij), usually a mind-door process has seven impulsion consciousnesses(jalana).102 If such impulsion consci­ousnesses are unwholesome(akusala), they will comprise minimum sixteen mental phenomena(nama·dhamma) and maximum twenty-two; if they are wholesome(kusa­la), they will comprise minimum thirty-two mental phenomena, maximum thirty­five.103 In all cases, one of those mental phenomena is volition (cetana), and it is volition that forms kamma.104 What is referred to as kamma is specifically the volition of the seven impulsions in an unwholesome or wholesome mental proc­ess.10S But in the ‘Kamma Cause’ (Kamma Paccaya) chapter of the Patth3na, kamma is also explained as the kammic potency{k”amma satti) of the volition in those impul­sions.106 Please try to remember this as we explain further.

DEFINITION OF KAMMA

Literally, the word ‘kamma’ means action or deed, but in The Buddha’s Teach­ing kamma refers only to volitional action:107

101 The Commentary to S.III.I.x.3 ‘Phena·Pin(l·Upama·Suttam’ (‘The Foam-Lump Simile Sutta’) explains: ‘In one snap of the fingers, the estimate is ten-million(koPJ hundred­thousand (.!ilta·saha.s:s’a), having arisen, cease.’ (10,000,000 x 100,000 = 1,000,000,000,000 = one billion consciousnesses(citta)<one trillion, American English». These billion conscious­nesses do not all comprise five-door and mind-door processes: a great many are Iife-conti­nuum consciousnesses arising between such mental processes. Thus, in one snap of the fingers, very many thousand million consciousnesses arise and perish (estimated at a bil­lion), which then include many thousand million mental process. For details, see table ‘Sb:

The Five-Door Process’, p.l44, and table ‘Sc: The Mind-Door Process’, p.146.

102 On the sensual plane, usually there arise only sensual-sphere mental processes. But if one develops the fine-material-, immaterial-, or supramundane jhanas, that will constitute fine-material-, immaterial-, or supra mundane mental processes: they comprise rrom one to countless impulsions. See table ‘Sd: The Jhana-Attainment Process’, p.176.

103 mental phenomena of unwholesome impulsion consciousnesses: see tables 2a/2b/2c, p.46ff; of wholesome sensual-realm impulsion consciousnesses: see tables 3a/3b, p.6Sff. 104 All kamma is produced by volition, but not all volition produces kamma. Since volition is one of the seven universal mental factors (see footnote 431, p.1SS), it means there is voli­tion in all consciousnesses. But kamma is not produced by the volition of resultant consci­ousnesses (see table’ 1: The Resultant Consciousnesses’, p.44), or functional consciousness­es (see table ‘Sb: The Rve-Door Process’, p.l44, table ‘Sc: The Mind-Door Process’, p.146, and the Arahant’s functional volition at ‘The Unworking of Kamma’, p.334ff).

10S The exception is the Arahant’s cognition: it is purely functional(kiriya), neither unwhole­some nor wholesome. See previous footnote.

106 See footnotes S, p.l, and S6, p.1S. (P.L427 ‘Kamma·Paccayo’ (‘Kamma Cause’) & PT’PaccaY’Wdesa’L9nnana'(‘Description of the Kamma Section’))

107 To explain that kamma is volition, DhSA.I.iii ‘Kamma’Katf7a'(‘Discussion of Kamma’) E.­117-118 quotes this passage, which can be found in A.VI.vi.9 ‘Nibbedhika’Suttam'(‘The Penetrating SUtta’). It quotes also a passage that can be found in S.ILI.iiLS ‘BhOmfja-

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The Workings of Kamma

It is volition(cetana) bhikkhus, that is kamma, I dedare.

Having willed, one accomplishes kamma by body(kayena), by speech(vacaya), and by mind(manasa).

Volition is the mental factor responsible for kamma.

UNWHOLESOME AND WHOLESOME VOLITION

There are two such types of volition:

1)Unwholesome volition(akusala cetana) 2) Wholesome volition(kusala rel11na)

Unwholesome volition is unwholesome kamma, and wholesome volition is wholesome kamma. But the volition of Buddhas and other Arahants is neither unwholesome nor wholesome: it is purely functional(kbiya). It never produces kamma, because they have eradicated the roots of kamma: ignorance and crav­ing.108 Nevertheless, as long as their mental and material continuity persists, even Buddhas and other Arahants cannot avoid experiencing the results of their past kamma: the results stop arising only when they enter Parinibbana (final ces­sation).109

IMPOSSIBLE AND POSSIBLE RESULTS

The law of kamma(A<1mma niyama) is a natural law that is self-sustaining in its op­eration.110 It ensures that the result of kamma is similar to the kamma itself (A<1mma·sarikkhaka·vipaA<1), just as the seed of a fruit produces a tree that bears the same kind of fruit. For example, the fruit of the nimb(nimba) tree is bitter. If we plant the seed of a nimb fruit, it produces a tree that bears also nimb fruits: they are also bitter. In the same way, an unwholesome kamma produces a result that is similar to the unwholesome kamma itself.

Unwholesome kamma does not produce an agreeable result. If the unwhole­some kamma produces its result, it will always be a disagreeable result:111

‘Suttam'(‘The Bhiimija Sutta’): ‘A body there being, Ananda, there arises in oneself happi­ness and suffering that is rooted in bodily volition [speech/mind there being, there arises

in oneself happiness/suffering that is rooted in verbal-/mental volition]: and with ignorance as cause.’ The commentary quotes also a similar passage that is the same as a passage in A.X.xxi.7&8 ‘Pathama{& Dutiya·] Saffcel11nika·Suttam'(‘The Rrst [& Second] “Volitional” Sutta’), and another similar passage that can be found in M.III.iv.6 ‘MaM·Kamma· Vibhanga­·Suttam’ (‘The Great Kamma-Analysis Sutta’): see endnote 206, p.2S0.

108 Arahant’s functional volition: using the metaphor of blackfwhite kamma, The Buddha explains how with the abandonment of blackfwhite kamma (by the Arahant Path&Fruition), one’s kamma becomes non-b1ackfnon-white (see endnote 282, p.3S1); and He explains that with the destruction of lust, hatred and delusion, there is the destruction of kamma causation (see endnote 300, p.3S4); and He explains that when a bhikkhu has attained the Arahant Path-Knowledge, he accomplishes neither a meritorious, demeritorious, nor imperturbable formation of kamma (see endnote 31S, p.3S6). In all cases, the Arahant’s volition is functional (see also explanation footnote 939, p.34S).

109 See discussion at ‘The Two Types of Parinibbana’, p.339ff.

110 DhSA.I.iii ‘Vipak’UddMra’Katha'(‘Discussion of the Result-Apprehension’) E.360 ex­plains: ‘And here at this stage, they [the ancient Commentary Teachers] include what is called the fivefold order of nature: the seed order, the temperature order, the kamma order, the Dhamma order, the consciousness order.’ See also quotation footnote 206, p.71.

111 A.I.xv.2’Atthana’Pa!i'(‘Text of the Impossible’). In this connection, The Buddha lists a (!lka6 •••• (utrtfut< rwd. pwp..)

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[1] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occasion where bodily bad conduct could produce a desired, pleasant, and agreeable result: no such possibility is known. But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known, that bodily bad conduct could pro­duce an undesired, unpleasant, and disagreeable result: a possibility as such is known.

[2] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occasion where verbal bad conduct could produce a desired, pleasant, and agreeable result: no such possibility is known. But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known, that verbal bad conduct could pro­duce an undesired, unpleasant, and disagreeable result: a possibility as such is known.

[3] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occasion where mental bad conduct could produce a desired, pleasant, and agreeable result: no such possibility is known. But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known, that mental bad conduct could produce an undesired, unpleasant, and disagreeable result: a possibility as such is known.

Then we can take sugar cane: it is sweet. If we plant the cutting of a sugar cane, it produces cane that is also sweet. 112 In the same way, a wholesome kamma produces a result that is similar to the wholesome kamma itself. Whole­some kamma does not produce a disagreeable result. If the wholesome kamma produces its result, it will always be an agreeable result:113

[1] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occasion where bodily good conduct could produce an undesired, unpleasant and disagreeable result: no such possibility is known. But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known, that bodily good conduct could produce a desired, pleasant, and agreeable result: such a possibility is known.

[2] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occasion where verbal good conduct could produce an undesired, unpleasant and disagreeable result: no such possibility is known. But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known, that verbal good conduct could produce a desired, pleasant, and agreeable result: such a possibility is known.

[3] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occasion where mental good conduct could produce an undesired, unpleasant and disagreeable result: no such possibility is known. But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known, that mental good conduct could produce a desired, pleasant, and agreeable result: such a possibility is known.

It is impossible for unwholesome kamma to produce an agreeable result just as it is impossible for a seed of the bitter nimb fruit to produce sweet sugar cane; and it is impossible for wholesome kamma to produce a disagreeable result just as it is impossible for a cutting of sweet sugar cane to produce the bitter nimb fruit.

number of impossibilities with their opposite possibility. For example, one of Right View cannot do certain things (but an ordinary person can do them); two BuddhasjWheel-Tum­ing Kings cannot arise in one world system at the same time (but one can); a woman can­not be a BuddhajWheel-Tuming KingjSakkatMara/Brahma (a man can); unwholesome kamma cannot lead to a happy destination (wholesome kamma can), and vice-versa. The ability to see this is the first of what The Buddha calls His ten Tathagata powers(7iJth3gata­·Data). See quotation at ‘The Buddha’s Knowledge of the Possible/Impossible’, p.42.

112 The simile of the bitter nimb fruit (above) and sweet sugar cane is mentioned in AA.L­xv.2 The Buddha uses it in A.X.IILi.4 Wga’Suttam'(‘The Seed Sutta’). There, He explains how the kamma of one with wrong view leads to the unwholesome and painful, whereas the kamma of one with Right View does the opposite.

113 A.Lxv.3 ‘Atthana’Pa!i'(‘Text of the Impossible’)

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THE BUDDHA’S KNOWLEDGE OF THE IMPOSSIBLE AND POSSIBLE

This knowledge of the impossible and possible is the first of The Buddha’s ten ‘Tathagata Powers'(TatMgafa·Bala). He explains it to the Venerable Sariputta:114 Here, Sariputta, according to reality, the Tathigata understands the possible as possi­ble, and the impossible as impossible.

And whatever, Sariputta, possible as possible, and impossible as impossible the Tathi­gata understands according to reality. This then, Sariputta, is a Tathigata’s Tathigata power, because of which power the Tathigata assumes the bull’s stance, roars the lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets in motion the divine wheel.11s

The Buddha explains this principle of impossible and possible throughout His Teaching:64 it is fundamental to His Teaching.

THE RESULTANT DHAMMAS

The results of kamma are the resultant dhammaS{llipaka dhamma). 116 They are resultant mentality{llipaka’nama) and kamma-born materiality(A<1mma:ja’n7pa):117

· Resultant mentality is the different types of resultant consciousnesS{llipaka­·citta): for example, the unwholesome resultant consciousness that gives re­birth in one of the hells, in the ghost world, or the animal world. It is called the rebirth-linking consciousness(papsandhi·dfta).118 When it is a wholesome resultant consciousness, it gives rebirth in the human world, the deva worlds, the Brahma worlds, and the immaterial worlds. 65 The life-continuum consci­ousnesses that maintain the mentality of a life are also resultant, and they stop arising only when the kamma that produces them has ceased.

Other resultant consciousnesses are, for example, the eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, and body consciousnesses that arise upon contact with either a de­sirable object, or an undesirable object. 119

Resultant mentality includes then also the mental factors{cetasika) associated with the resultant consciousnesses:120 for example, the pain,joy,orequanimity of a resultant consciousness.66

114 M.I.ii.2 ‘MaM’Siha’Nada’Suttam'(‘The Great Uon’s-Roar Sutta’). The Most Venerable Sayadaw refers also to the ten Tathagata powers as The Buddha gives them in Vbh.I.­xvi. 10, and as they are explained in VbhA. They are mentioned also in A.I.xv~tthana Pa!i’ (‘Text of the Impossible’), and M.III.ii.S Oahu Dhiituka’Suttam'(‘The Many Types of Ele­ment Sutta’).

11S bull’s stance/divine wheel: see footnote 96, p.37.

116 dhammas: here dhamma is equivalent to the English ‘thing’: any possible object of thought, including animate/inanimate objects, mental/material objects, facts, events, qualities, circumstances, utterances, and acts. Thus, unwholesome/wholesome dhammas, material/mental dhammas, jhana dhammas, etc.

117 See ‘Dependent Origination’, p.l07.

118 rebirth-linking consciousness: this resultant consciousness links the past life with the present. For details, see table ‘Sa: Death and Rebirth’, p.SO.

119 There are in all thirty-six types of resultant consciousness, see table ‘1: The Resultant Consciousnesses’, p.44.

120 VsMT calls them also resultant mental factors(vipaka-cdasika).

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These resultant dhammas all arise when the appropriate kamma meets the right conditions to produce its result.

121 For The Buddha’s explanation of how the body is born of dependently originated past kamma, see quotation endnote 63, p.231. For further details, see ‘Ultimate Materiality: p.90. 122 translucency: see dictionary definition, footnote 961, p.364.

123 Although the beings in the fine-material world possess a nose, tongue, and body, the equivalent translucent elements do not occur, nor does sex-materiality (see footnote 487, p.173). But the beings there appear as males (VbhA.XVI.x.809 ‘Pafhama·Bala·Niddeso’ (‘Exposition of the First Power’) DD.XVI.x.2191). Beings in the immaterial world possess no materiality at all.

• Kamma-Born Materiality(kammaja’n7pal21 is eighteen types of materiality:

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The Workings of Kamma

UNWHOLESOME AND WHOLESOME KAMMA

What then, does The Buddha mean by unwholesome and wholesome kamma?

Akusala·kamma and kusala·kamma?

When a consciousness has an unwholesome root(akusala·mOla), it is an unwhole­some consciousneSS(awsala·dlt11), and when a consciousness has a wholesome root(kusa/a·mii/a), it is a wholesome consciousneSS(kusala·dlt11). Thus, when a mental process’s impulsions(jalana) have an unwholesome root, their volition (cetana) is unwholesome, and we have unwholesome kamma. When a mental process’s impulsions have a wholesome root, their volition is wholesome, and we have wholesome kamma.

UNWHOLESOME CONSCIOUSNESS

The unwholesome roots are three: greed(lobha), hatred (dllX1) and delusion(moha).

That means there are three main types of unwholesome consciousness:12S

1) Greed-rooted consciousnesS(lobha·mii/a·dlt11)

2) Hatred-rooted consciousneSS(dasa·miila·dlt11)

3) Delusion-rooted consciousnesS(md7a·mOla·dlt11)

Unwholesome consciousnesses can never be associated with good things, only bad. 67 That is why unwholesome consciousnesses are always associated with consciencelessneSS(ahili),68 shamelessness(anolt11ppa), restlessnesS(uddhaa:a),69 and delusion(moha).126 This means that a greed-rooted consciousness is always asso-

124 VsM.xiv.4S4l\17andha.Niddesa'(‘Exposition of the Aggregates’) PP.xiv.94-10S

12S The Buddha explains the roots in, for example, A.IILII.ii.9J4kusala-Miila·SlJttaJiI'(‘The Unwholesome-Root Sutta’): ‘These three, bhikkhus, are the unwholesome roots. What three?The greed unwholesome root, the hatred unwholesome root, the delusion unwhole­some root …. These three, bhikkhus, are the wholesome roots. What three? The non-greed wholesome root, the non-hatred wholesome root, the non-delusion wholesome root.’

126 The three roots are also three of the ten defilements(ki/es”a): 1) greed, 2) hatred, 3) delu­sion,4) conceit,S) views (wrong), 6) scepticism, 7) s1oth,8) restlessness,9) conscienceless-

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ciated also with delusion, and a hatred-rooted consciousness is also always asso­ciated with delusion. But a greed-rooted consciousness cannot be associated with hatred, nor can a hatred-rooted consciousness be associated with greed: greed and hatred cannot arise in the same consciousness. The third type of conscious­ness, the delusion-rooted one, is an unwholesome consciousness associated with delusion alone.

What is that delusion? It is the same as ignorance(avtfja). We explained it in connection with the ‘Gaddula’Baddha’sutta:127

Amongst the ultimately non-existent, amongst women, men, it [ignorance] hurries on; amongst the existent, however, amongst the aggregates, etc., it does not hurry on ….

What does this mean? It means that ignorance (delusion> sees only convent­ional truth(sammuti·saaa):128 women and men, mothers and fathers, wives and husbands, daughters and sons, dogs, cats, pigs, and chickens, etc. These things do not exist according to reality(yatha.bhiita). 70

The things that do exist according to reality, however, are the aggregates(khan­dha), the elementS(dhatu), the bases(ayal11na), mentality-materiality(nama·fl7pa), de­pendent originationiPapa:a·samupp5da), the workings of kamma, the three charact­eristics, etc.: in brief, the Four Noble Truths.129 These things, which are ultimate truth(paJamattha·saaa), ignorance does not see. 130 And as we also explained in con­nection with the ‘Gaddula’Baddha’sutta, that is why beings run on from life to life. This ignorance is the delusion associated with unwholesome consciousnesses.

Greed, hatred, and delusion make a consciousness unwholesome, which means the volition is unwholesome: unwholesome kamma.71 The Buddha calls it also evil (papa), and demerit(apufilia).72 And the accomplishment of unwholesome kamma, He calls also bad conduct(du·a:aJil11)/3 and demeritorious formation(apufifi’abhisaJi­khaJa).74 If that kamma produces its result, it will be an unwished for, undesired and disagreeable result,75 and will lead to continued production of kamma.71

UNPROMPTED AND PROMPTED

If the unwholesome kamma is accomplished spontaneously, without hesitation or the urging of another, it is unprompted(asaJikharika); if the unwholesome kamma is accomplished with hesitation, or the urging of self or another, it is prompted(sasaJikhaJika).76

The volition of unprompted kamma is the stronger, for it is associated with joy(pili), whereas prompted kamma is weaker, because it is associated with sloth&torpor(thb7a.mkfdha). 77

ness, 10) shamelessness. (DhS.iii.123S ‘Kilesa’Gocchakam'(‘The Defilement Cluster’)) 127 VsM.xvii.S87 ‘Pafifia·Bhiimi·Niddesa’ (‘Exposition of the Wisdom-Ground’) PP.xvii.43 128 Sammuti.sacca: also called vohara·sacca.

129 See quotation endnote lS2, p.242.

130 The three characteristics are: 1) impermanence(anical), 2) suffering(wkkha), 3) non­self(an-atta). Ignorance does not see them because of the three types of compactness: see quotation, footnote 9, p.2.

What then does it mean that a consciousness is rooted in greed(kJbha)?

Here, greed has to do with attraction, gross or subtle: for example, craving (l11nha), lust(r.jga), sensual desire(ka”ma·crl7anda), covetousness(abhiffha), attachment(asajjana), c1inging(u,03dana), conceit(mana), vanity(mada), and vieWS(d~tthi).

A consciousness that is associated with these things is a greed-rooted consciousness (Iobha’mOla­·dtta). The volition will in that case always be un­wholesome. And, as mentioned, when there is greed, there is always also consciencelessness, shamelessness, restless­ness, and delusion. But please note that when an unwholesome conscious­ness is dissociated from wrong view, it is not thereby associated with Right View: an unwhole­some consciousness can­not be associated with Right View.

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GREED-RooTED CoNSCIOUSNESS131

The Workings of Kamma

131 The tables that follow have been designed according to the combination system (satigaha·naya): all combinations of mental phenomena (AbS.ii.43-S2J4kusala·0tta·Sarigal7a­·Nayo'(‘Unwholesome Consciousness Combination System’) CMA.ii.26, and AbS.ii.33-34 ‘Sobhana·Cetasika·Sampayoga·Nayo’ (‘Beautiful Mental-Factor Association System’) CMA.ii.17). One column is one type of consciousness, with mental factors shaded.

132 Feeling: a greed-rooted consciousness is associated with either pleasure(somana.s:sa), or equanimity(~): both mental feelings. When there is pleasure, there is also joy{piti); when there is equanimity, there can be no joy.

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HATRED-RooTED CoNSOOUSNESS

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Greed has to do with attraction, but hatred(dosa) has to do with repulsion, and resistance, gross or subtle: for example, aversion(papgha), envy(iSS§), possessive­ness (macd1ariya),l34 iII-will(byapada), anger{kodha), enmity(ven1), cruelty(vihb7is5), and boredom (kosajja), impatience(akMlanti), remorse(kuAAvaa), sorrow(soka), Iamenta­tion(parideva), displeasure(domanam), and despair(upay5sa).

A consciousness that is associated with these things is a hatred-rooted consci­ouSneSS(dosa·n70/a·~). The volition will in that case always be unwholesome. And when there is hatred, there is always also con­sciencelessness, shame­lessness, restlessness, and delusion.

133 Feeling: a hatred-rooted consciousness is associated with either displeasure(OOmana.s:sa), or equanimity(upekkha): both mental feelings. Hence, there can be no joy{piti) associated with hatred-rooted consciousness.

134 For an analysis of this term, see ‘Possessiveness’, p.371.

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DEWSION-RooTED CoNSCIOUSNESS

Delusion(moha), when alone, has to do with deluded equanimity, indifference towards the workings of kamma. And when there is scepti­cism{llidkicrha), and restlessnesS(uddl7aa:a), it is a delusion-rooted consciousness(m0’7a·mO/a·dlt11). Scepticism refers in this case to scepticism, uncertainty, about The Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, dependent origina­tion, past lives, future lives, etC.l36 The volition is in that case always unwholesome. And

when there is delusion, there is again always also consciencelessness and shamelessness.

UNWHOLESOME RESULTANTS

When a kamma with one of these three un­wholesome roots matures at the time of death, the rebirth-linking consciousneSSiPati>andhi·dlt11) will be an unwholesome resultant conscious­nesS(akusala·vipa/(a·dlt11), which means there will be rebirth in either the animal world, the ghost world, or in one of the hells. It is impossible otherwise: 137

[1] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occa­sion where one of bodily bad conduct pos­sessed, due to that, because of that, at the breakup of the body, after death, in a good destination, a heavenly world, could be re­born: no such possibility is known.

But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known that one of bodily bad conduct pos­sessed, due to that, because of that, at the breakup of the body, after death, in perdition, in a bad destination, an infernal place, in hell, could be reborn: such a possibility is known.

[2] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occasion where one of verbal bad conduct possessed, due to that, because of that, at the breakup of the body, after death, in a good destination, a heavenly world, could be reborn: no such possibility is known.

13S Feeling: a delusion-rooted consciousness is always and only associated with equanim­i~(upek/dI3), hence it can never be assodated with joy. Delusion-rooted consciousness can also never be associated with desire(d7anda).

136 See quotations endnote 18, p.22.

137 A.LXV.3 ‘Atthana’P8!i'(‘Text of the Impossible’). AA explains that ‘perdition’, ‘bad desti­nation’, etc., are all synonyms for hell. And it explains that when The Buddha says one is ‘possessed’ of certain bodily-/verbal-/mental conduct, this refers to three types of ‘posses­sion’: 1) accumulation-possession(aylihana’samJrigta); AT: volition-continui~(cetana·santati). This corresponds to the preceding/succeeding volitions. 2) volition-possession(cetana’samJrigita); AT: decisive volition(sannitfhapaka-cetana). This corresponds to the conclusive volition(sanni(­fhana·cetana). 3) kamma possession(kamma’samJrigta), which is past kamma that can mature. See in this connection also table ‘la: Unwholesome Resultant Consciousness’, p.S2.

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But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known that one of verbal bad conduct possessed, due to that, because of that, at the breakup of the body, after death, in perdition, in a bad destination, an infernal place, in hell, could be reborn: such a possibility is known.

[3] Impossible it is, bhikkhus, there is no occasion where one of mental bad conduct possessed, due to that, because of that, at the breakup of the body, after death, in a good destination, a heavenly world, could be reborn: no such possibility is known.

But it is indeed possible, bhikkhus, it is known that one of mental bad conduct possessed, due to that, because of that, at the breakup of the body, after death, in perdition, in a bad destination, an infernal place, in hell, could be reborn: such a possibility is known.

Kamma with one of the three unwholesome roots leads also always to contin­ued running on from life to life.

In the hells, the ghost world, and the animal world, the consciousnesses that arise are almost only unwholesome, rooted in greed, hatred, and delusion. Delu­sion is very strong in the lower worlds, and it is very, very rare for wholesome consciousnesses to arise there. That is why it is almost impossible for beings in those lower worlds to escape. 78

Rebirth in the human world is always because of wholesome kamma. None­theless, among the great majority, the uneducated ordinary people, conscious­ness is rooted predominantly in greed, hatred, and delusion. Only occasionally do wholesome consciousnesses arise. And among the uneducated ordinary people, delusion is very deep. That is why, when human beings pass away, they are al­most always reborn either in hell, the ghost world, or the animal world. 79

Rebirth in the sensual-plane deva-worlds is always because of superior whole­some kamma. That is why sensual-sphere devas enjoy superior sensual plea­sures. And their bodies, their faces, their eyes, their complexion, their clothes, and their mansions are very, very beautiful. Because of that, unfortunately, there is very much lust, envy, and possessiveness. That is why, when sensual-sphere devas pass away, they are also almost always reborn either in hell, the ghost world, or the animal world. 138/80

In the higher deva worlds, the Brahma worlds, no hatred-rooted conscious­nesses can arise. But there is often attachment to and craving for life there, which is greed-rooted. A Brahma may also think his life is eternal, and that he is the creator of the universe, an omnipotent and omniscient god:81 that is wrong view, which is greed-rooted.

When a Brahma passes away, he can never go directly to hell, the ghost world or the animal world. When the kamma that produced rebirth in the Brahma world has finished, he may be reborn in a lower Brahma world,or in the deva- or human world.

138 See, for example, ‘Spoilt Devas’, p.192.

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Notes for Table ‘Sa: Death and Rebirth’

· One consciousness lasts one consciousness moment(dlt11’kM7ana), with three stages: arising(uppada)t, standing(tfliti) I, dissolution(bhaJiga) .1, .

· Cognition follows a fixed procedure, according to the natural law of the

mind(dlt11·n4t§maj. The procedure for death and birth is:

Final Mental Process in One Life

One life’s final mental process is either a five-door process or a mind-door proc­ess.139 The object of the final mental process is one of three:

1) Kamma: the volitional formations of an unwholesome or wholesome kamma accomplished earlier in the same life or a previous life. For example, one may recollect the hatred associated with slaughtering animals, the happiness asso­ciated with offering food to bhikkhus or other receivers, or the happiness and tranquillity associated with meditation.

2) Kamma Sign(A<1mma nimitt;J): an object associated with an unwholesome or wholesome kamma accomplished earlier in the same life or a previous life. A butcher may see a butcher’s knife or hear the screams of animals about to be slaughtered, an abortionist may see a dead foetus, a doctor may see patients, a devotee of the Triple Gem may see a bhikkhu, a Buddha image or hear chanting of the Pali Texts, and a meditator may see the patibhaga nimitta of his samatha meditation subject, or one of the three characteristics of his vi­passana meditation subject.

3) Destination sign(gati nimilt11): a vision of one’s destination, where one is about to be reborn. For rebirth in hell, one may see fire; for an animal rebirth, one may see forests or fields; for a deva-rebirth, one may see deva-mansions.

This object serves as the object of the next life’s process-separated conscious­nesseS(vilJ1i.mutta·citt;J).l40/82 They arise independently of sense-door processes. They are alilife-continuum consciousnesses(bhavaJiga·citt;J), with the same past object, and same mental factors. The first such consciousness in one life serves as a link between the past existence and the present, so it is called the rebirth­linking consciousnesS(papsandhi·dlt11j. The last life-continuum consciousness in one life is called the decease consciousneSS(CIJti·dlt11), because it passes the mentality­materiality continuity on/over to the next existence. All such consciousnesses that arise throughout one life, in between the various mental processes, are just called life-continuum consciousnesses(bhavaJiga·dlt11).141/83

The final mental process of a life has always only five impulsions <not the usual seven). Their volition does not alone produce the rebirth-linking consciousness, but functions as a bridge to cross into the new life.142 They may be followed by two registration consciousnesses. There may also arise life-continuum conscious­nesses before the decease consciousness: they may arise for a shorter or longer

139 See tables ‘Sb: The Rve-Door Process’ (p.144), and ‘Sc: The Mind-Door Process’ (p.146). 140 lit. ‘process-freed’, also called door-separated(dva/O·vimutta) Iit.’door-freed’: in English, this means they are without a process/door, which is misleading. There has been the question whether Nibbana or a Path-/Fruition consciousness can be the object of the the process­separate consciousnesses. For the Sayadaw’s answer, see subsequent endnote 82, p.233. 141 For why the Iife-continuum(bhavariga)and decease consciousness(ClIti’dtta) have those names, see subsequent endnote 83, p.234. For further details on the nature of the Iife-continuum, see footnote 30S, p.l0S.

142 See further ‘Reinforcing Kamma’, p.187.

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time, even up to days or weeks. With the cessation of the decease conscious­ness, the life faculty is cut off, and there remains only a corpse: dead materiality. First Mental Process in One Ufe

Immediately after the rebirth-linking consciousness (the first consciousness of a life),143 follow sixteen life-continuum consciousnesses with the same object. 144 And then always a mind-door process, which has the new aggregates as object. Release from the suffering of death (17 consciousness moments earlier) gives rise to relief accompanied by attachment(nikantiA<1), which is existence crav­ing(bhava·tanha). Hence, the kamma accomplished by the first mental process in one life is always unwholesome (akusa/a).

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In the Pali, it is understood that these types of resultant consciousness are unrooted (ahetuka) sensual-sphere consciousnesses(A;jm.avaal/O·dtta).

CoNSCIOUSNESS: see table ‘Sb: The Five-Door Process’, p.144.

FEELING: in the act of seeing, derived materiality (colour) strikes upon derived materiality (the eye translucency of an eye decad-kalapa). Thus the impact is weak. It is like striking with one ball of cotton upon another ball of cotton that is lying on an anvil. Hence, both the unwholesome and wholesome resultant eye consciousness is accompanied by only

143 As may be seen in the ‘Death and Rebirth’ table, rebirth in one of the three realms of existence follows immediately after death in one of those realms. Nonetheless, there are those who speak of an intermediate existence(antar,j·bhava). It is hypothesized to be an exis­tence between the arising of the decease consciousness and subsequent rebirth-linking consciousness(where one has been neither reborn nor not reborn). This wrong view is discussed in Kv.viii.2J4ntam·Bhava·Katf7a'(‘Discussion of Intermeditate Existence’). There, it is explained that such a hypothesis amounts to declaring a realm of existence apart rrom the three stated by The Buddha <see quotation, endnote 313, p.3SS>. Such a wrong view arises owing to a misinformed reading of the different kinds of Non-Returner <see endnote 289, p.3S2>. It arises also because of misunderstanding a brief existence as a ghost(peta) (caused by unwholesome kamma) prior to another rebirth, which itself is caused by: 1) an identical unwholesome kamma (see for example, ‘The Ghost Nandaka’, p.20S); 2) another unwholesome kamma; 3) a wholesome kamma. When one has discerned dependent origi­nation with one’s own insight knowledge, this wrong view becomes unsustainable.

144 An exception is the impercipient being(a·.!ilJi&·satta), as there is no consciousness. See footnote 93S, p.343.

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equanimity. This is the same for hearing, smelling, and tasting. But in the act of touching, a great essential otJject(mahii-bhiiMmmma(lam) (tangible = earth-/fire-/wind element) strikes upon derived materiality (the body translucency of a body decad-kalapa) as well as upon the four great essentials (of the same body decad-kalapa). It is like striking with a hammer upon a ball of cotton lying on an anvil. Hence, the unwholesome resultant body con­sciousness is always accompanied by painful feeling, and the wholesome resultant body consciousness is always accompanied by pleasant feeling (DhSA.I.iii ‘Abyakata’Padati7’ (‘Discourse on Unmoral Consciousness’) E.349-3S0: see also table ‘lb: The Wholesome Resultant Unrooted Consciousness’, p.62).

FUNCT1ON: the type of consciousness called the investigation consdousness may function as one life’s Iife-continuum consciousnesses: the first one is the rebirth-linking consciousness (pa(isandhi-cit/;J) and the last one is the decease consciousness(cvti·dtta). Such types of consci­ousness are also called process-separate consdousnesses(vi1J1i·mutta·dtta). See table men­tioned below.

OBJECT: for the kammajkamma sign/destination sign, see notes to table ‘Sa: Death and Rebirth’, p.SO.

IGNORANCE AND CRAVING AND THE ROOTS

Before we go on to explain the consciousnesses with wholesome roots, perhaps it is better now to explain the connection between ignorance and craving and the three unwholesome roots.

Let us again quote The Buddha in the ‘Gaddula·Baddha’sutta:

A first point is not known of ignorance-hindered beings fettered by craving, I1Ishing on and I1Inning about.

This is what The Buddha calls the round of rebirth(samsa/Q). The round of rebirth is just continued rebirth, life after life. At the end of each life, there is death, and immediately after death, an unwholesome or wholesome kamma produces its result: the result is a new rebirth-linking consciousnesS(papsandhj.citta), and new aggregates. As The Buddha explained, this continued process is maintained by ignorance(avtfja) and craving(l11nha).

When there is craving, the consciousness is greed-rooted(IOOha·mii/a). And, as explained earlier, when there is greed, there is also delusion(moha). Delusion is the same as ignorance. A greed-rooted consciousness is always associated with delusion, which means craving is always associated with ignorance. Craving (tan­ha) is the same as greed(lobha), and ignorance(avtfja) is the same as delusion(moha).

Why then does The Buddha mention only ignorance and craving? Why does He not mention hatred? It is because not everyone has hatred. When one becomes a Non-Returner(An·Agami), one will have destroyed the hatred root(dosa·miila). But there remains some very subtle ignorance and craving as latencies(anusaya), very subtle existence-craving(bhava·tanha). The Buddha calls it the lust-for-existence latency(bhava·r.jg·anusaya).14S/84 Everyone except the Arahant has ignorance and craving, and they are the most fundamental conditions for continued rebirth.

14S latency: there are seven: the sensual-Iust-, aversion-, views-, scepticism-, conceit-, lust-for-existence-, and the ignorance latency. Until they have destroyed by a Path Knowl­edge, they will always be latent. VsM.xxii. (PP.xxii.60) explains: ‘For it is owing to their inveteracy that they are called latencies(anusaya), since they lie latent(anuSBlti) as cause for the arising of greed for sense desires, etc., again and again.’ For example, one may by practising jhana suppress the hindrances, and be reborn in the Brahma world, and remain there for a long time. But eventually one will be reborn again in the sensual realm. And even though the hindrances have been absent from one’s mentality-materiality continuity

(!lktue ••• (utrtfut< rwd. pwp.)

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The Workings of Kamma

Let us say, for example, we think: ‘I do not want to be reborn anymore! I want to be a true disciple of The Buddha!’ And we practise with the desire for Arahant­ship in this life. But even though we have a strong desire to put an end to rebirth, it depends on our parami:l4f> especially wisdom(panna). How much samatha and vipassana practice did we accomplish in past lives. If we accomplished sufficient wisdom in past lives, we may indeed attain Arahantship in this life: otherwise it is impossible. We may practise with a great desire for Arahantship and no more rebirth, but because our wisdom is not yet deep enough, that desire is in fact also not strong enough. There is still the latency of lust for existence, the latent craving to come into existence(bhala·tanha). 147 It is only with the Arahant Path­Knowledge(Aiahatta-Magga·Nana) that craving to come into existence, and its associ­ated ignorance, is destroyed without remainder. That is why The Buddha speaks of only ignorance and craving: not mentioning hatred.

Let us now discuss the wholesome roots.

WHOLESOME CONSCIOUSNESS

The wholesome roots are also three: non-greed(a·/OOha), non-hatred(a·dosa) and non-delusion(a·moha). 148 But when discussing the roots, we do not say non-delu­sion, we say knowledge(nana).

Just as unwholesome consciousnesses never can be associated with good things, so can wholesome consciousnesses never be associated with bad things.85 That is why wholesome consciousnesses never can be associated with conscience­lessneSS(ahbi), shamelessness(anottappa), restlessnesS(uddl7aa:a), or greed(ldlha), hatred(dosa) and delusion(moha). Wholesome consciousnesses are associated al­ways with good things such as the nineteen so-called beautiful universals(sOOhana­·stidharana): for example, conscienCe(hili) and shame(ottappa),l49 tranquillity of [men­tall body(kaya·passaddhi}, and tranquillity of consciousnesS(cilta’passaddhi},15O mindful-

for a very long time, when the conditions are right, they will return. VsM.xxii.830 iJana­·Dassana· Visuddhi·Niddeso’ (‘Exposition of the Knowledge&Vision Purification’) PP.xxii.73 explains that the wrong view-, and scepticism latency are uprooted with Stream Entry; the sensual-Iust-, and aversion latency, with Non-Return; the conceit-, lust-for-existence-, and ignorance latency only with Arahantship. See also endnote 180, p.246.

146 parami: ten things requisite over many lives for the future attainment of Arahantship: 1) offering, 2) morality, 3) renunciation, 4) wisdom, 5) energy, 6) patience, 7) truthfulness, 8) resolution, 9) loving-kindness, 10) equanimity. For the attainment of Buddhahood, they comprise in all thirty: ten standard, ten medium, and ten ultimate paraml Gotama Buddha developed them over four incalculables, and a hundred thousand aeons. See detailed ex­position in commentary to ‘C8liyii’Pitaka'(‘The Basket on Conduct’), chapter iii, ‘Pakinnaka­‘Katha'(‘Discussion of the Miscellaneous’).

147 See also endnote 180, p.246.

148 See quotation, footnote 12S, p.44.

149 See quoted analysis at ‘Conscience’, p.368.

1S0 tranquillity of body/consciousness: VsM.xiv.470 l\17andha·Niddesa'(‘Exposition of the Aggregates’) PP.xiv.144-149 explains that body = three mental aggregates (feeling, per­ception, and formations); consciousness = the consciousness aggregate. There are six such modes, attributes, of wholesome mentality: 1) tranquillity (opposite restlessness); 2) light­ness (opposite s1oth&torpor); 3) flexibility (opposite the mental rigidity of views and con­ceit); 4) wieldiness (opposite the remaining hindrances); 5) proficiency (opposite faithless­ness, etc.), 6) rectitude (opposite deceit, dishonesty, etc.). VsMT explains that when there is tranquillity, etc. of the mental body, there comes to be also tranquillity, etc. of the material

(!lka6 •• “” (utrtfut< rwd. pwp..)

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ness(sati) and faith(saddha). lSl In the same way, all wholesome consciousnesses are associated with non-greed(a.Jobha) and non-hatred(a·dosa). A non-greed rooted consciousness is always associated also with non-hatred, and a non-hatred rooted consciousness is also always associated with non-greed. But not all wholesome consciousnesses are associated with non-delusion, with knowledge: that is the main distinction between them.86 We have thus two main types of wholesome consciousness: lS2

· Consciousness that is knowledge-dissociated. (nana’Yippayutta): it is double­rooted(dvi-hetuka), rooted in only non-greed and non-hatred .

· Consciousness that is knowledge-associated.(nana·sampayutta): it is triple­rooted(ti·hetuka), rooted in non-greed, non-hatred, and non-delusion (knowl­edge(nana)·

Please note that the wholesome consciousness dissociated from knowledge is not thereby associated with delusion(moha). There is merely no knowledge: a wholesome consciousness cannot be associated with delusion.

Non-greed, non-hatred, and knowledge make a consciousness wholesome, which means the volition is wholesome: wholesome kamma.87The Buddha also calls it merit(pufilia). And the accomplishment of wholesome kamma He also calls meritorious formation(pufifi·iibhisaJiWra).ls3 If that kamma produces its result, it will be a wished for, desired, and agreeable result. And such wholesome kamma is necessary for us to put an end to kamma and rebirth.88

Here we should mention that with attainment of the Arahant Path(Arahatta­oNagga), all subsequent consciousnesses in one’s final life are associated with non­greed and non-hatred. The Arahant’s constant abiding(sal11t,wihiira)89 is namely cognizing the arising and perishing of formations, and their dependent origina­tion. It is almost always knowledge-associated. But at the time of waking up or falling asleep, or when tired, weak, or sick, the Arahant’s cognition may be knowledge-dissociated.90 Nonetheless, the Arahant’s consciousnesses are not wholesome as such, for the Arahant’s volition does not generate kamma: it is purely functional(ki$3).l54

NON-GREED AND NON-HAlRED RooTED CoNSCIOUSNESS

Wholesome consciousnesses are always rooted in non-greed(a·bbha) and non­hatred(a·dosa). What does that mean? Here, non-greed refers to anything that has to do with generosity(ciiga), offering(diina), and renunciation(neW7amma), gross or subtle. Non-hatred refers to anything that has to do with loving-kindness(~), goodwill(abyiipada), amity(avera), pity(aYihini;fj), compassion(karo(1ii), and sympathetic joy(miiditii) (rejoicing in another’s good fortune) gross or subtle. And they cannot be separated. When there is offering, there is also goodwill. When there is com­passion, there is also renunciation. And, of course, such consciousnesses cannot

body. That is why The Buddha divided these mental attributes into two.

lSl There are twenty-five beautiful mental factors in all, but these nineteen are present in any wholesome consciousness: see tables 3at3b, p.6Sff.

lS2 In the discussion that follows, about wholesome consciousnesses and the merit-work bases, reference is made only to the wholesome impulsion consciousnesses: those con­sciousnesses that in a non-Arahant accomplish kamma.

153 See quotation endnote 74, p.232.

154 For further details regarding the Arahant’s volition, see ‘Unwholesome and Wholesome Volition’, p.40.

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be associated with delusion: they can only be either dissociated from or associ­ated with non-delusion(a·moha).

KNoWLEDGE-DIssocIATED AND KNoWLEDGE-AssocIATED

What then is the non-delusion, the knowledge(liana), dissociated from or associ­ated with wholesome consciousnesses?

As we explained earlier,lss the delusion associated with unwholesome consci­ousnesses is to see and believe in conventional truth(sammuti·saa:a), instead of ultimate truthiPaJamattf7a·saa:a): it is to see women and men, mothers and fathers, dogs, cats, pigs, and chickens, etc., instead of seeing the aggregates (khandha), mentality-materiality(nama·n7pa), dependent origination(papa:a·samuppada), etc. The knowledge dissociated from or associated with wholesome consciousnesses, however, is five types of knowledge(liana). They are also called wisdomiPanlia)or Right View(Samma·Di.tthi).l56

THE FIVE TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE

The first three types of knowledge are mundane(~):

1) Kamma-Ownership Knowledge/Wisdom(Kamma·5s;akata·MnanVPanlia): know­ledge about the workings of kamma, which is knowing that one’s rebirth is determined by one’s own past kamma, and that throughout one’s life, one’s own past and present unwholesome kamma produces painful results, where­as one’s own wholesome kamma produces pleasant results.l57 This is the basic Right View(Samm3·Di.tthi).l58

2) Jhana Wisdoml59(Jhana·Panlia):l60 this is knowledge absorbed into/61 fIXed

onto, one’s meditation object.162 It may be fixed onto, for example, the

lSS See Wsuddhi-Maggaquotation, pAS.

lS6 e.g. AA.I.xviA (324) ‘Ef<a·Dhamma·pafi’ (‘Single Thing Text’). These five types of know­ledge are in AA.ibid.2 (30S) also referred to as five types of Right View(Samma.£Jitfhi). Thus, Right View, knowledge, and wisdom are synonyms.

lS7 See quotation p.2S6.

lS8 basic Right View: see quotation ‘To Hold Right View’, p.133.

lS9 See table ‘3c: Mental Phenomena of Exalted Consciousness’, p.83f.

160 Jhana is referred to only as jhana wisdom/Right View, never as jhana knowledge(MQa). 161 absorbed into: jhana is also called absorption (see quotation footnote 163, p.S6). VsM.iii.39 ‘!(amma· Tfhana·Ggaha(1a·Niddeso,(,Exposition of the Meditation-Subject Obtain­ment’) PP.iii.S explains that there are two kinds of concentration: 1) access(upacam) and 2) absorption(awana). VsMT explains absorption: ‘Application that occurs as though absorbing associated things in the object is absorption. Accordingly, it is described as “absorption, absorbing”.’ DhSf.I.iii.160 ‘Pafama·JjMna·Katha· Vannana’ (‘Description of the First-Jhana Discussion’) explains that ‘absorption’ is in commentarial usage(af!ha·kafJ1ii-l.oharo) used to refer to the application’s distinctive function(vifakka.s:s’a /dcca·visesena) of stability(thimbhava) gained in first-jhana concentration(fJ1imbhava’ppatre patflama1jhana’samiidhimhi}, as well as that same stability in the concentration of the second-, third-, and fourth jhana, even though they are without application(vifakka·mhitesv).

162 DhSA.i.160 ‘CatIJkka·Nayo Pathama·JjMnam'(‘Fourfold-System First-Jhana’) E.222-223 explains that jhana is twofold: 1) object scrutiny(iirammaQ’iipanijjhana) is scrutiny of the sama­tha object for attaining the jhanas, for example, scrutiny of the earth-kasir)a. 2) character­istic scrutiny(lakkhi1lJ’upanijjhiina) is then again threefold: i) vipassana, which is scrutiny of, for example, the impermanence characteristic. Ii) Path, because it accomplishes the work to be done by vipassana. Iii) Fruition, because it scrutinizes the cessation-truth, Nibbana.

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counterpart sign in mindfulness-of-breathing and the ten kasil)as, or the im­age of happy beings in loving-kindness meditation.

3) Insight KnowledgejWisdom(Yi,oas;ana·nana/panna): this is knowledge absorbed into, fixed onto, the three characteristics of ultimate materiality and men­tality.l63 When a consciousness is associated with this knowledge, it does not see women and men, mothers and fathers, dogs, cats, pigs, and chick­ens; it does not see hands and feet, eyes and ears, left and right, etc.:l64 such things are conventional truth(sammuti·saaa), concepts(panfiati). They do not exist according to reality(yatna·bhOt11): we cannot practise insight medita­tion(vi,oas;ana·bhavanii) on things that do not exist. The object of insight medi­tation is ultimate truthiPaJamattha·saaa): the aggregates(khandha), mentality­materiality(nama·n7pa), dependent originationiPapa:a·samuppiida), etc. They exist according to reality.

These three types of knowledge are mundane: they know the formed element (saJikhata·dhalu). The next two types of knowledge are supramundane(lokutt11Ja). They know Nibbana, the Unformed Element(AsaJikhata’Dhiilu):16S

4) Path KnowledgejWisdom(Magga.Niinam,.1>anna): it is the first consciousness that knows Nibbana: the Stream-Entry-, Once-Return-, Non-Return-, or Arahant Path-Knowledge.

5) Fruition KnowledgejWisdom(Pha/a·NiinanVPanna):166 it is the subsequent con­sciousness that knows Nibbana: the Stream-Entry-, Once-Return-, Non­Return-, or Arahant Fruition-Knowledge.

These two supra mundane knowledges are superior to all other kinds of know­ledge.167 But outside the Dispensation of a Buddha, they arise only in those who become Paccekabuddhas, nobody else, because Paccekabuddhas are unable to teach the Dhamma. Only a Fully Enlightened Buddha is able to teach others how to attain these two knowledges.

When a wholesome consciousness is associated with one of these five types of knowledges, it is associated with non-delusion(a·moha), which means it is knowl­edge-associated(nana·sampayutta): triple-rooted(ti·hetvka). But when a wholesome consciousness is dissociated from one of these five knowledges, it is dissociated from non-delusion, which means it is knowledge-dissociated(nana·vppayutta): dou­ble-rooted (dvi·heluka).

163 VbhA.X.i.467 ‘Suttanta·Bhiijaniya· Va(IIJanii’ (‘Description of the SUttanta Classification’) DD.X.i.1S27 explains: “‘Becoming concentrated” is rightly centred, is placed immovably upon the object, becomes as though attained to absorption … this one-pointedness of mind which is associated with insight(vi,QiI’.\Qn5) and originates awakening factors is called the concentration awakening factor.’

164 See quotation footnote 280, p.91.

16S See ‘Path&Fruition’, p.330, and table ‘Se: The Path Process’, p.336.

166 Fruition KnowledgejWisdom: this is the primary result of the Path Kamma. The second­ary result is destruction of defilements.

167 VbhA.XVI.x.3.7707ika.Niddesa’lIannanii'(‘Description of the Threes Exposition’) DD.­XVI.x.2084 explains: ‘But Path&Fruition wisdom exceeds all types of wisdom. It occurs widely only when a Tathagata has arisen, not when One has not.’

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UNPROMPTED/PROMPTED

If the wholesome kamma is accomplished spontaneously, without hesitation or the urging by self or another,l68 it is unprompted(asaJiWIika); if the wholesome kamma is accomplished with hesitation, or the urging by self or another, it is prompted(sasaJiWliA<1).169/91 The volition of unprompted wholesome kamma is the stronger, although both unprompted and prompted wholesome kamma have the same combination of mental factors.170 But there are other important factors to be considered.

INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR

Wholesome kamma can also be divided into the inferior(001aka) and superior (Ukkatfha).171 It depends on how one performs the wholesome kamma. When ac­complishing wholesome kamma, four things decide the quality of the kamma:172

1) Desire(dlanda): this is one’s desire to perform the wholesome kamma: for example, one’s desire to make the offering, one’s desire to abstain from the unwholesome action, one’s desire to concentrate on the meditation subject. If one’s desire is low, the wholesome kamma is inferior, whereas if it is high, one’s wholesome kamma is superior.

2) Energy(vi”liya): this is one’s arousing of energy to perform the wholesome kamma, the arousing of effort(padhana).

168 The Buddha makes this distinction also in S.ILI.iiLSWhOmij1·Suttam'(‘The Bhiimija Sutta’): see quotation endnote 76, p.232.

169 VsM.xiv.4S2 l\17andha·Niddesa'(‘Exposition of the Aggregates’) PP.xiv.84 explains: ‘When a man is happy on encountering an excellent gift to be offered, or recipient, etc., or some such cause for joy, and by placing Right View foremost that occurs in the way beginning “There is offering” [see end offootnote], he unhesitatingly and unurged by others performs such merit as offering, etc., then his consciousness is accompanied by joy, associated with knowledge, and unprompted. But when a man is happy and content in the way aforesaid, and, while placing Right View foremost, yet he does it hesitantly through lack of !Tee gen­erosity, etc., or urged on by others, then his consciousness is of the same kind as the last but prompted; for in this sense “prompting” is a term for a prior effort exerted by himself or, others. But when young children have a natural habit due to seeing the behaviour of relatives and are joyfUl on seeing bhikkhus and at once give them whatever they have in their hands or pay homage, then the third kind of consciousness arises [knowledge-disso­ciated, unprompted]. But when they behave like this on being urged by their relatives, “Give; pay homage”, then the fourth kind of consciousness arises [as above but prompted].’ 170 This as opposed to unwholesome unprompted/prompted consciousnesses: see ‘Unprompted and Prompted’, pAS. See also Tables 2a/2b/2c ppA6-48.

171 In DhS.L269-276 Te·BhOmaka·Kusalam’ (‘Triple-Planed Wholesome’) The Buddha divides wholesome consciousnesses into three: 10w(hiila)/medium(ma.ffhillil)/high01aQila) (also DhSA.­ibid./E.vii, and DhSf). But AbS.v.72-73 ‘Kamma’Catukkam'(‘Kamma Tetrad’) CMA.v.29 nar­rows them down to two: inferior/superior.

172 These four factors are usually discussed only as means to power{iddh~p3da), related to jhana practice (see ‘The Four Means to Power’, p.173). But discussing low, medium, and high meritorious consciousness of the three spheres, The Buddha in DhS.ibid. discusses these factors without referring to them as means to power; as does DhSA.ibid. A1soVsM.i.12 ‘SiIa·Ppabheda·Katha'(‘Discussion of the Morality-Variety’) PP.L33 refers to them as deter­mining low, medium, and high morality. The details here have been taken from The Bud­dha’s explanation in Vbh.ix ‘Iddhi·pada·llibhaJigo’ (‘Analysis of Means to Power’).

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3) ConsciousneSS(dlt11): this is one’s concentrating on the wholesome kamma.

Without distraction, one makes the offering, undertakes the precepts, con­centrates on the meditation subject, etc.

4) Investigation(viinamsa): this is one’s knowledge(nana), wisdomiPanna), and Right View(SammMJi.tthiJ when performing the wholesome kamma. We just discussed it.

When either of these factors is low or middling, the wholesome kamma is infe­rior; when high, the wholesome kamma is superior. For example, if one makes an offering or undertakes the precepts in order to attain future sensual pleasures as a rich human being, or a deva, then the wholesome kamma is inferior. If one does it with the intention to attain Nibbana, then the wholesome kamma is supe­rior.173 We shall discuss this in more detail later, when we discuss the three merit­work bases(punifa.Jdriya·vatti1u).174

The inferior is thus associated with unwholesome things before and after the wholesome kamma consciousnesses, whereas the superior is associated with wholesome things before and after the wholesome kamma consciousnesses. They are called the preceding&succeeding volitions/pubb.apa/Q.rel11naj. 17S

What does this mean? When we make knowledge-associated offerings, or train in knowledge-associated morality and meditation, it does not mean we no longer see concepts such as men and women, etc.: we do, but such unwholesome con­sciousnesses intersperse the wholesome consciousnesses. Generally speaking,176 during the whole course of a meritwork, many different kinds of consciousnesses will arise: unwholesome as well as wholesome.

When we make an offering, the wholesome consciousnesses of offering that take the wholesome kamma of offering as object may be interspersed by differ­ent types of unwholesome consciousness: we discussed them in connection with the different types of temperament. 177 For example, there may be greed-rooted consciousnesses, thinking: ‘My offering is better than her offering!’ or ‘If I make this superior offering, maybe I shall win the lottery!’ or ‘My business will prosper!’ There may be hatred-rooted consciousnesses, thinking: ‘My offering is not very good!’ or after the offering, ‘I made too much food: what a waste!’ And there may be delusion-rooted consciousnesses, thinking: ‘This is my mother’, ‘this is my son’, ‘this is a bhikkhu’, etc., or ‘Can offerings produce rebirth? Is it true?’

Our offering may, on the other hand, be interspersed by wholesome conscious­nesses: rooted in non-greed and non-hatred. For example: ‘I want to make very good offerings: that will make me happy!’ or ‘How good it is that he also makes offerings!’ (rejoicing over another’s offering). The interspersing wholesome con­sciousnesses may also be knowledge-associated. For example: ‘Making offerings will make me happy: it will help my meditation!’ or ‘This offering can be a sup­porting cause for my attainment of Nibbana!’92

173 DhST-ibid. explains that the low is dependent on occurrence of rebirth(vaffa·nissita), and the superior is dependent on non-occurrence of rebirth(viva{ta·nissita).

174 See ‘The Merit-Work Bases’, p.64.

17S These differences manifest in the resultant consciousnesses: see table ‘if: Inferior & Superior Wholesome Kamma, Their Roots & Resultant Rebirth-Unking’, p.61. For the suc­ceeding/preceding volitons, see explanation rrom MA, footnote 669, p.2S7.

176 That is, in some cases excepting a Noble One, and in all cases excepting the Arahant. 177 See ‘The Variety of Temperament’, p.32.

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The Workings of Kamma

In the same way, when we attain jhana, the jhana consciousnesses will all be associated with knowledge of the meditation object. But before we go into jhana, or after we have come out of jhana, there may be unwholesome consciousnesses. For example, greed-rooted consciousnesses may arise, thinking: ‘I am a very good meditator!’ or ‘If I can sit in jhana for a whole day, I can become famous!’ Hatred­rooted consciousnesses may arise, thinking: ‘Why is that meditator so noisy!’ or ‘What is the use of sitting in jhana?’ Delusion-rooted consciousnesses may arise, thinking: ‘This is my mother’, ‘this is my son’, ‘this is a bhikkhu’, etc., or ‘Does jhana enable me to see past and future lives? Is it true?’

Our jhana may, on the other hand, be interspersed by wholesome conscious­nesses, rooted in non-greed and non-hatred. For example: ‘I want to develop jhana: that will make me happy!’ or ‘How good it is that he is also meditating!’ (this is rejoicing over another’s practice). The interspersing wholesome conscious­nesses may also be knowledge-associated. For example: ‘Developing jhana will enable me to see ultimate truth: then I can practise insight meditation, and at­tain Nibbana!’

Teaching of Dhamma may also be interspersed by unwholesome consciousness­es.178 For example, if one teaches the Dhamma for gain, with the thought, ‘By this I will be known as a teacher!’ greed-rooted consciousnesses arise. The same if one reads the Dhamma or listens to Dhamma talks with the thought: ‘By this people will consider me as one of the faithful!’ One’s teaching and learning the Dhamma may, on the other hand, be interspersed by wholesome consciousness­es, rooted in non-greed and non-hatred, even in knowledge: for example, if one teaches and learns the Dhamma thinking, ‘Teaching the Dhamma will help me understand the Dhamma better,and be a supporting cause for attaining Nibbana!’ and ‘Learning the Dhamma is very meritorious, and will be a supporting cause for attaining Nibbana!’

In this way, we may understand that unless we are in deep concentration, practising samatha or vipassana, many, many different types of mental process may arise one after the other: wholesome and unwholesome. But please always remember that these analyses are only general guidelines: the workings of kamma is very profound, and there are many variations. Only a Buddha can ex­plain them in detail, and then only case by case.

INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR; THE ROOTS AND RESULTANTS

Why are these associated things important? Because they help determine the quality of the wholesome kamma’s result. The quality of the impulsion con­sciousnesses(jalana) determines the quality of the resultant conscious­nesses(~ka’citt11): for example, the quality of the rebirth-linking conscious­nesS(pa(isandhi·citt11).

178 The examples in this paragraph are from DhSA.i.1S6-9 ‘Puffffa·Kiriya·Vatth·Adi·Katha’ (‘Discussion of Merit-Work Base Etc.’) E.211.

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According to inferiority and superiority, and the dissociation or association of knowledge, there are three different types of resultant consciousness: 179

1) The wholesome resultant consciousness that is unrooted(ahetuA<1): it may function either as a process consciousness(vithj·citt11) or as a process-separate consciousnesS(vilJ1j·mut/a·dtta).

i) As a process consciousnesS(V/1f7j·dtta), the wholesome resultant unrooted consciousness is the result of wholesome kamma that is inferior(omaA<1) as well as superior(ukkattf7a), knowledge-dissociated(nana’vippayutta) as well as knowledge-associated(nana·sampayutta), triple-rooted(ti’helvka) as well as double-rooted(dvi·hetuA<1). How so? Because any type of wholesome kamma may produce eye consciousness, ear consciousness, etc. Also a Buddha sees, hears, smells, tastes, and touches objects that are the re­sult of wholesome kamma: pleasant(ittf7a) or very pleasant(ati·~ttha).

Ii) As a process-separate consciousness(vithj·mutta·citt11), the wholesome re­sultant unrooted consciousness is the result of wholesome kamma that is inferior(omaA<1) and knowledge-dissociated(naifa·vppayutta): inferior double­rooted(dvi·helvka). If such kamma produces the rebirth-linking conscious­ness, one will be either a lower deva, a rakkha, a naga or garOda, or a human being who is congenitally blind, deaf, mute, or in some other way physically or mentally deficient.

179 AbS.v.71 ‘Kamma·Catukkam'(‘Kamma Tetrad’) CMA.v.29)

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The Workings of Kamma

In ttle Pali, it is understood ttlat ttlese types Of resultant consciousness are sensual­sphere consciousnesses(kjm·avaal/O-dtta).

CoNSCIOUSNESS: see table ‘Sb: The Five-Door Process’, p.144. FEELING: see notes to ‘Unwholesome Resultant Consciousness’, p.S2.

FUNCTlON: the type of consciousness called the investigation consciousness may function as one life’s Iife-continuum consciousnesses: the first one is the rebirth-linking consciousness (pa(isandhi·dtta) and the last one is the decease consciousness(cvti·dtta). Such types of consci­ousness are also called process-separate consciousnesses(vi1J1i·mutfa·dtta). See table men­tioned below.

OBJECT: for the kammatkamma sign/destination sign, see notes to table ‘Sa: Death and Rebirth’, p.SO.

2) The resultant consciousness that is dou ble-rooted (dvi·hetuA<1): ’80 it is the result of two types of wholesome kamma. Wholesome kamma that is superior(uAA”a­ttha) and knowledge-dissociated (superior double-rooted), and wholesome kamma that is inferior and knowledge-associated(nana’sampayutt;1}: inferior triple-rooted(ti·hetuA<1). As we just mentioned, when such kamma produces eye consciousness, ear consciousness, etc., those resultant consciousnesses are unrooted: those types of consciousness are unrooted whatever the wholesome kamma that produces them. But if the double-rooted resultant consciousness becomes a rebirth-linking consciousness, one will be a lower deva, or a low-born human being, but with faculties complete. And one’s wisdom will be dull, meaning one will be unable to understand the Dhamma well. And one will in that life be unable to attain either jhana or Path&Frui­tion.93

’80 See table ‘lc Rooted Sensual-Sphere Wholesome Resultant Consciousness’, p.63.

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The kamma consciousnesses that produce these types of resultant consciousness are also called the great wholesomes(maliHlIsala), and their resultants the great resultants (maha·vipaka). Even so, the great resultants are usually not called wholesome-resultants (kusala·vipaka), since that term refers usually only to the wholesome resultant unrooted types of consciousness: see table, p.62.

PROMPTING: see ‘Unprompted and Prompted’, p.S8.

KNoWLEDGE: see ‘Knowledge-Dissociated and Knowledge-Associated’, p.S6.

FUNCT1ON: these eight types of consciousness may function as one life’s Iife-continuum consciousnesses: the first one is the rebirth-linking consciousness(pa(isandhi·dtta) and the last one is the decease consciousness(ClIti·dtta). Such types of consciousness are also called process-separate consciousnesses(vi1J1i·mutta·dtta). See table mentioned below.

OBJECT: for the kammajkamma sign/destination sign, see notes to table ‘Sa: Death and Rebirth’, p.SO.

Again, please remember that these analyses are general guidelines: there are many variations. Thus, someone with sharp wisdom who is ugly, born into a rich or poor family, may in fact have a triple-rooted rebirth-linking consciousness; or someone who is dull but very beautiful, born into a rich or poor family, may in fact have a double-rooted rebirth-linking consciousness.181 You will understand it

181 Such variations may be attributed to frustrating kamma: see ‘Frustrating Kamma’, p.188. For an example of variation, see also ‘Scowling PaiicapapT, (p.269): she was born very ugly, but with a superior touch.

3) The resultant consciousness that is triple-rooted(ti’helvka): it is the result of wholesome kamma that is superior and knowledge-associated: superior tri­ple-rooted. And here again, when such kamma produces eye consciousness, ear consciousness, etc., those resultant consciousnesses are unrooted: those types of consciousness are unrooted whatever the wholesome kamma that produces them. But if the triple-rooted resultant consciousness becomes a rebirth-linking consciousness, one will be either a very beautiful high deva with superior deva-pleasures, or a high-born human being with faculties complete, great beauty, good health, enjoying superior sensual pleasures, etc.94 And one’s wisdom will be sharp, meaning one will be able to under­stand the Dhamma well. And in that life (according to one’s parami), one will be able to attain jhana and Path&Fruition.

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better when you discern these workings of kamma yourself with your own direct knowledge: when you discern dependent origination, and attain the Cause-Appre­hending Knowledge(Paa:aya·PaJt7gaha·Nana).

In accordance with these guidelines, we shall now discuss wholesome consci­ousness as the three merit-work bases(pufifia.Jdriya·vatlf1u).

THE MERIT-WORK BASES

The three merit-work bases(pufifia·kiriya·vatlf1u) are three ways to accomplish wholesome kamma, to develop wholesome consciousness. They are:95 offer­ing(dana), morality(S1s), and meditation (bhavana). 182/96

All three merit-work bases can be either knowledge-dissociated(nana·vppayutt;1) or knowledge-associated(nana·sampayult11); in other words, double-rooted(cfl.1·helvka) or triple-rooted(ti·helvka).

For offering and morality, the associated knowledge is the Kamma-Ownership Knowledge(Kamma·5s;akal11·Mna); for meditation, the associated knowledge is either jhana-wisdomO’hana;aafifia), or insight meditation-knowledge(Yipassana·nana). And if our meditation reaches its summit, the associated knowledge is Path Knowledge (Magga’Mna) and Fruition Knowledge(Phala·Nana).

OFFERING

The first merit-work base is offering (dana): the kamma of offering someone something.l83 Such an act is opposite greed; rooted in non-greed(a.Jobha). It is also rooted in non-hatred(a·dosa), because hatred cannot arise together with non­greed. If we offer without faith in the Kamma-Ownership Knowledge (Kamma·5s;a­kal11·Nana), it is knowledge-dissociated (nana·vippayutt;1): double-rooted(cfl.1·hetvka). If we offer with faith or direct knowledge of the Kamma-Ownership Knowledge, it is knowledge-associated(nana·sampayutt;1}: triple-rooted(ti·hetvka).

As we just mentioned, the Kamma-Ownership Knowledge is the basic Right View: it exists also outside a Buddha’s Dispensation. But so long as one has not seen the workings of dependent origination (so long as one has not attained the Cause-Apprehending Knowledge(Paa:aya·PaJiggaha·Nana), so long is that Right View based on faith in one’s teacher. If one’s teacher is The Buddha, one’s Right View can be strong. And one may make great offerings that are knowledge-associ­ated.l84

182 DhSA.i.1S6-91’ufifia.k7liya.Letth.Mi.Katf7a'(‘Discussion of Merit-Work Base Etc.’) E.212 expands the merit-work bases from three to ten: see subsequent endnote 96, p.236.

183 For the ten bases for offering(dasa dana’vattflu), see quotation at ‘One Makes Offerings’, p.284.

184 As examples of superior offerings made outside a Buddha’s Dispensation, VbhA.XVI.­x.3.770 Tika·Niddesa· Van(1ana'(‘Description of the Threes-Exposition’) DD.XVI.x.20B4 re­fers to the offerings of our Bodhisatta in past lives, as Velama (A.IX.I.ii.l0 ‘VeJama·SUf:taJi7’ (‘The Velama Sutta’)), and Vessantara (JA.xxii.l0 (S47)’Ves-santam·Jataka· Lennana'(‘De­scription of the Vessantara Jataka’). And explaining offerings made when a Tathagata has arisen, it explains: ‘There is no measure of those who undertake great offerings(maha’dana) by means of that knowledge.’


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