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The forty meditation subjects taught by The Buddha,95O for the development of samatha meditation, with some sutta references.951


Ten Kasinas

D.ii.2 ‘Maha·Nidana·Suttam'(‘The Great Causation SUtta’) M.II.iii.7 ‘Maha’Sakuludayi’Suttam'(‘The Great Sakuludayi SUtta’)

Ten Foulnesses

D.ii.9 ‘Maha·Sati·Patthana·Suttam'(‘The Great Mindfulness-Foundation Sutta’) M.III.ii.9 ‘Kaya·Gata·Sati·Suttam'(‘The Body-Related Mindfulness SUtta’)

Ten Recollections:

Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha

D.ii.3 ‘Maha·Parinibbana·Suttam'(‘The Great-Parinibbana Sutta’) S.I.XI.i.3 ‘Dhajagga Suttam'(‘The Standard SUtta’)


D.ii.3 ‘Maha·Parinibbana·Suttam'(‘The Great-Parinibbana Sutta’) A.III.II.ii.l0 ‘Uposatha·Suttam'(‘The Uposatha Sutta’)


A.VI.i.l0’Mahanama·Suttam'(‘The Mahanama SUtta’) Devas

A.III.II.ii.l0 ‘Uposatha·Suttam'(‘The Uposatha Sutta’) A.VI.i.l0’Mahanama·Suttam'(‘The Mahanama SUtta’) Death

A. VI.ii. 9 ‘Pathama·Marana·Ssati·Suttam'(‘The First Death-Recollection SUtta’) A. VI.ii.l0 ‘Dutiya·Marana·Ssati·Suttam'(‘The Second Death-Recollection SUtta’) Body-Related Mindfulness952

D.ii.9 ‘Maha·Sati·Patthana·Suttam'(‘The Great Mindfulness-Foundation Sutta’) M.III.ii.9 ‘Kaya·Gata·Sati·Suttam'(‘The Body-Related Mindfulness SUtta’) Mindfulness-of-Breathing

D.ii.9 ‘Maha·Sati·Patthana·Suttam'(‘The Great Mindfulness-Foundation Sutta’) M.III.ii.9 ‘Kaya·Gata·Sati·Suttam'(‘The Body-Related Mindfulness SUtta’) Peace953

M.II.ii.4 ‘Maha·Malukyaputta·Suttam'(‘The Great Malukyaputta Sutta’) A.X.I.i.6 ‘Samiidhi·Suttam'(‘The Concentration SUtta’)

950 VsM .iii.47 ‘Kamma· W13na·Ggaha(la·Niddeso’ (‘E:xposition of the Meditation-Subject Ob­tainmenf) PP.iii.104-105.

951 The sutta references given are only examples: there are more suttas that mention these meditation subjects.

952 In the Visuddhi·Magga’s listing, bodv-related mindfulness refers specifically to medita­tion on the thirty-two parts of the body. The term bodv-related mindfulness. however, is used by the Buddha in many ways. Thus, in M .III.ii. 9 ‘Kaya·Gafij·Sati·SUttafh’ (‘The Body­Related Mindfulness Sutta’), for example, The Buddha explains it as the exact same four­teen body-mntemplations (ind. meditation on the thirty-two parts of the body) that He explains in D.ii.9’MaM·Sati·Patfh3na·Suttafh'(‘The Great Mindfulness-Foundation Sutta’), as well as the four material jhanas: at eadl explanation He says: ‘That IDo is how a bhik­khu develops body-related mindfulness.’

953 This is recollecting the qualities of Nibbana.


The Workings of Kamma

Four Divine Abidings Loving-Kindness

M.I.iii.l ‘Kakac·Opama·Suttati1′(‘The Saw-Simile Sutta’) A.N.ILii.7 ‘Ahi·Rffja·Suttati1′(‘The Snake-King Sutta’) Loving-Kindness. Compassion, Sympathetic Joy, Equanimity O. i.13 ‘Te· V!ffa·Suttati1’ (‘The Three-Sciences Sutta’) M.ILiv.3 ‘Maghadeva·Suttati1′(‘The Maghadeva Sutta’l A.IILII.ii.5 ‘Kesamutfj·Suttati1′(‘The Kesamutti SUtta’) 54

Four Immat.erials

11Ie Boundless-5pace Base, The Boundless-Consciousness Base,

the Nothingness Base, the Neither-Perception nor Non-Perception Base 0.ii.2 ‘Maha·Nidana·Suttati1′(‘The Great Causation-Sutta’)

M.I.iii.6 ‘Ariya·Pariyesana·Suttati1’ (‘The Noble-Search Sutta’)955 M.IILi.6 ‘ifnefijasappaya·Suttati1′(‘The Imperturbable-Wards Sutta’) A.IX.I.iv.5 ‘Jhana’Suttati1′(‘The Jhana Sutta’)

One Perception


S.V.ILviii.3 ‘ifhare·Pa(ikiila·Suttati1′(‘The Nutriment-Repulsiveness Sutta’) A.X.II.i.6 ‘Pa(hama·Saiiiia·Suttati1′(‘The Rrst Perception SUtta’)

A.X.II.i.7 ‘Dutiya·Saiiiia·Suttati1′(‘The Second Perception Sutta’)

One Defining

Four Elements

0.ii.9 ‘Maha·SaU·Patfh8na·Suttati1′(‘The Great Mindfulness-Foundation SUtta’) M.IILii.9 ‘Kaya·Gata·Safj·Suttati1′(‘The Body-Related Mindfulness Sutta’)

954 Also known as ‘The Kalama Sutta’.

955 Also called ‘Pasa·Rasi·Suttafh'(‘The Mass of Snares Sutta’).


Four incalculables and one-hundred thousand aeons ago, a hermit Sumedha resolved to become a Buddha. He did this in the presence of The Buddha Dipari­kara. The Buddha Diparikara prophesied that he would eventually become The Buddha Gotama. From then till his attainment of Buddhahood as The Buddha Gotama, the Bodhisatta developed his parami. That included training under twenty-four different Buddhas: sometimes as a hermit, sometimes as a bhikkhu, or a Brahmin, a king, a lord, a superior animal, a deva, or yakkha.

The twenty-four Buddhas are explained in The Buddha·Uneage Text (Buddha­oVati1sa·Pa!i). It explains their birth, life span, status, the name of their parents, the name of their wives and children, their life span, way of renunciation, the duration of their efforts to attain Buddhahood, their teaching of the ‘Dhamma­·Cakka·PpavatfJlana·Suttati1′(‘The Dhamma-Wheel Setting-in-Motion Sutta’),956 and the name of their Chief Disdples and chief lay-disciples. Each account ex­plains also where they went into Parinibbana, and how their relics were distrib­uted.

Included in The Buddha·Uneage Textis The Buddha’s prophecy of the next Buddha, The Buddha Metteya:957

24) The Buddha Diparnkara

23) The Buddha Kondanna

22) The Buddha Mangala

21) The Buddha Sumana

20) The Buddha Revata

19) The Buddha Sobhita

18) The Buddha Anomadassi

17) The Buddha Paduma

16) The Buddha Narada

15) The Buddha Padumuttara

14) The Buddha Sumedha

13) The Buddha Sujata

12) The Buddha Piyadassi

11) The Buddha Atthadassi

10) The Buddha Dhammadassi

9) The Buddha Siddhattha

8) The Buddha TIssa

7) The Buddha Phussa

6) The Buddha Vipassi

5) The Buddha Sikhi

4) The Buddha Vessabhu

3) The Buddha Kakusandha

2) The Buddha Konagamana

1) The Buddha Kassapa

The Buddha Gotama

The Buddha Metteya

The six Buddhas before The Buddha Gotama are explained by our Buddha also in ‘Mah·iApadana·Suttam'(‘The Great-Lineage Sutta’). He explains, for example:958

956 The Buddha Gotama’s version of this sutta is found in S.V.XH.ii.1.

957 The Buddha Gotama mentions the coming of The Buddha Metteya also in D.iii.3 ‘Cakka·Vatti·sma·Nada·Suttafh'(‘The Wheel-Turning Uon’s-Roar Sutta’).

958 (D.ii.l)The Buddha knows this by His own knowledge, and also because Non-Return­ers in the pure abodes describe to him the past dispensation during whim they attained their Path&Fruition.


The Workings of Kamma




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